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Traditional or one-dimensional models or explanations of crime have tended to divide human beings and society into biological, cultural, psychological, or sociological entities. These analyses are partially correct at best. At worst, they are inadequate because they typically ignore more factors than they consider.

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

In response to the limited range and application of most nonintegrative theories of crime and punishment, criminologists since the 1970s have been embracing integrative or interdisciplinary frameworks of examination. The diversification of models is liberating since it allows a creative plurality of knowledge. Some integrative theories focus on criminal behavior and activity; punishment and crime control; or crime, justice, and social control. Integrative theories can be formalistic and consist of propositional statements stemming from two or more theories, usually within the ...

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