The authors of the 20 chapters in Juvenile Crime and Justice address various hotly debated topics along three loosely connected themes: prevention, prosecution, and corrections. Each author presents arguments both in favor of and opposed to various treatments, programs, and punishments, examining issues such as youth curfews, juveniles in adult courts, legal representation for juveniles, juvenile boot camps, group homes, out-of-home placement, and more. The chapters included cover the leading arguments pertaining to key topics in this field and point out where more research needs to be done–which, at present, includes many of the most controversial issues in juvenile justice policy.The SeriesThe five brief, issues-based books in SAGE Reference’s Key Issues in Crime & Punishment Series offer examinations of controversial programs, practices, problems or issues from varied perspectives. Volumes correspond to the five central subfields in the Criminal Justice curriculum: Crime & Criminal Behavior, Policing, The Courts, Corrections, and Juvenile Justice. Each volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.
Chapter 12: Legal Representation
The juvenile justice system does not have a long history requiring the provision of legal counsel, as compared to the requirements long in place for adult defendants in the criminal justice system. Spurred mostly by the Supreme Court's near-unanimous (8–1) opinion in the seminal case of In re Gault in 1967, juvenile courts around the United States began the slow process of ensuring that juveniles were properly represented by legal counsel when facing charges of criminal conduct in the juvenile court. Throughout the 1970s, legal representation advocacy groups for youths emerged across the country, and by the end of that decade, the American Bar Association (ABA) had released the first comprehensive guide and standards for the representation of juvenile defendants, among other ...