Questions about the causes or sources of work stress have been the subject of considerable research, as well as public fascination, for several decades. Earlier interest in this issue focused on the question of whether some jobs are simply more inherently stressful than others. Other questions that soon emerged asked whether some individuals were more prone to stress than others. The Handbook of Work Stress focuses primarily on identifying the different sources of work stress across different contexts and individuals.   

Organizational Justice
Organizational justice
RussellCropanzanoBarry M.GoldmanLehmanBenson III

Authors' Note: The authors wish to thank Carolina Moliner for her helpful comments on an earlier draft of this chapter.

Human beings have long reflected on the nature of fairness. Aristotle presented a model of equity that bears more than a little resemblance to current thinking (Homans, 1961). Plato wrote about justice in his Republic. Likewise, both Herodotus's History and Plutarch's Lives extolled the just Athenian government of Solon (c. 638–559 B.C.). As ancient as these writings are, interest in fairness is even older. For example, concerns over fairness are manifested in the Torah and in Hammurabi's code.

Such philosophical and legal writings are prescriptive or normative theories of justice because they attempt to specify what people should do. Although the sort ...

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