The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies
Publication Year: 2009
Tourist Studies developed as a sub-branch of older disciplines in the social sciences, such as anthropology, sociology and economics, and newer applied fields of study in hospitality management, civil rights and transport studies. This Handbook is a sign of the maturity of the field. It provides an essential resource for teachers and students to determine the roots, key issues, and agenda of Tourism Studies.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Approaches to Tourism Studies
- Chapter 2: Tourism and Hospitality
- Chapter 3: Anthropological Interventions in Tourism Studies
- Chapter 4: The Sociology of Tourism
- Chapter 5: The Diverse Dynamics of Cultural Studies and Tourism
- Chapter 6: Tourism, Popular Culture and the Media
- Chapter 7: Histories of Tourism
- Chapter 8: Tourism Geographies: A Review of Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities
- Chapter 9: Development Studies and Tourism
- Chapter 10: Economics of International Tourism
- Chapter 11: Power, Politics, and Political Science: The Politicization of Tourism
- Chapter 12: Tourism and Natural Resources
- Chapter 13: Tourism: A Strategic Business Perspective
Part II: Key Topics in Tourism
- Chapter 14: Tourism, Religion, and Spirituality
- Chapter 15: Breaking down the System: How Volunteer Tourism Contributes to New Ways of Viewing Commodified Tourism
- Chapter 16: Theme Parks and the Representation of Culture and Nature: The Consumer Aesthetics of Presentation and Performance
- Chapter 17: Architecture and Urban Planning: Practical and Theoretical Contributions
- Chapter 18: Tourism and Heritage Conservation
- Chapter 19: The Challenges and Prospects for Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism in Developing Countries
- Chapter 20: Rural Tourism: An Overview
- Chapter 21: Transportation and Tourism: A Symbiotic Relationship?
- Chapter 22: Innovative Approaches for Managing Conservation and Use Challenges in the National Parks: Insights from Canada
- Chapter 23: Planning for Tourism at Local and Regional Levels: Principles, Practices and Possibilities
- Chapter 24: Destination Marketing Organizations: Convention and Visitors Bureaus
- Chapter 25: Destination Management: New Challenges, New Needs
- Chapter 26: Tourism Safety and Security
Part III: Critical Issues and Emerging Perspectives
- Chapter 27: Festivals, Events, and Tourism
- Chapter 28: Tourism as Postcolonialism
- Chapter 29: Thanatourism and Its Discontents: An Appraisal of a Decade's Work with Some Future Issues and Directions
- Chapter 30: Tourism and Performance
- Chapter 31: Information Technology: Shaping the Past, Present, and Future of Tourism
- Chapter 32: Global Tourism Business Operations—Theoretical Frameworks and Key Issues
- Chapter 33: Tourism and International Policy: Neoliberalism and Beyond
- Chapter 34: Ethical Perspectives: Exploring the Ethical Landscape of Tourism
- Chapter 35: Gender and Tourism Discourses: Advancing the Gender Project in Tourism Studies
- Chapter 36: Tourism Studies and the New Mobilities Paradigm (NMP)
- Chapter 37: Tourism and Languaging
- Chapter 38: Methodologies and Methods
- Chapter 39: Conclusions: Tourism Studies—Past Omissions, Emergent Challenges
Introduction and editorial arrangement © Tazim Jamal and Mike Robinson 2009
Chapter 1 © Tazim Jamal and Mike Robinson 2009
Chapter 2 © David Bell 2009
Chapter 3 © Naomi Leite and Nelson Graburn 2009
Chapter 4 © Adrian Franklin 2009
Chapter 5 © David Crouch 2009
Chapter 6 © Philip Long and Mike Robinson 2009
Chapter 7 © John Walton 2009
Chapter 8 © Sanjay Nepal 2009
Chapter 9 © David Telfer 2009
Chapter 10 © John Fletcher 2009
Chapter 11 © Linda Richter 2009
Chapter 12 © Andrew Holden 2009
Chapter 13 © Nigel G. Evans 2009
Chapter 14 © Richard Sharpley 2009
Chapter 15 © Stephen Wearing and Jess Pointing 2009
Chapter 16 © Keith Hollinshead 2009
Chapter 17 © Robert Mugerauer Jr. 2009
Chapter 18 © Aylin Orbaşli and Simon Woodward 2009
Chapter 19 © Joseph Mbaiwa and Amanda Stronza 2009
Chapter 20 © Bernard Lane 2009
Chapter 21 © Stephen Page and Yue (Gurt) Ge 2009
Chapter 22 © Kathleen Rettie, Tony Clevenger and Adam Ford 2009
Chapter 23 © Brian King and Michael Pearlmam 2009
Chapter 24 © Robert Ford and William Peeper 2009
Chapter 25 © Richard Harrill 2009
Chapter 26 © Peter E. Tarlow 2009
Chapter 27 © Bernadette Quinn 2009
Chapter 28 © Hazel Tucker and John Akama 2009
Chapter 29 © Tony Seaton 2009
Chapter 30 © Tim Edensor 2009
Chapter 31 © Ulrike Gretzel and Daniel Fesenmaier 2009
Chapter 32 © Keith Debbage and Suzanne Gallaway 2009
Chapter 33 © Robert Wood 2009
Chapter 34 © Mike Smith 2009
Chapter 35 © Cara Aitchison 2009
Chapter 36 © Mišela Mavrič and John Urry 2009
Chapter 37 © Alison Phipps 2009
Chapter 38 © Gayle Jennings 2009
Chapter 39 © Mike Robinson and Tazim Jamal 2009
First published 2009
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About the Editors and Authors[Page viii]Editors
Tazim Jamal is an associate professor in the Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University, Texas, USA. She has a PhD in Management from the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and an MBA from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Her main research interests lie in tourism planning, heritage tourism, collaborative processes and theoretical/methodological issues related to tourism and sustainability. Her current research areas include small mountain communities in Western Canada, rural communities in Texas, and the Riviera Maya, Mexico. She has published widely in various tourism-related journals.
Mike Robinson holds the Chair of Tourism and Culture at Leeds Metropolitan University. He is also Director of the Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change—an international research body that carries out work on the changing relationships between tourism and culture. Mike is founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, an Associate Editor of the Scandinavian Journal of Tourism and is on the board of four other international journals. He is Series Editor of the Tourism and Cultural Change Book Series.Authors
Cara Aitchison is Faculty Dean of Education and Sport at the University of Bedfordshire, UK and Professor in Leisure and Tourism Studies. Until 2008, she was Professor in Human Geography and Director of the Centre for Leisure, Tourism and Society (CeLTS) at the University of the West of England. Publications include Gender, Sport and Identity (Routledge, 2007), Geographies of Muslim Identities: Diaspora, Gender and Belonging (Ashgate, 2007), Gender and Leisure: Social and Cultural Perspectives (Routledge, 2003), Leisure and Tourism Landscapes: Social and Cultural Geographies (Routledge, 2001). Cara is a member of the UK Research Assessment Exercise Panel for Sport-Related Studies.
John Akama received his PhD in Geography from Southern Illinois University in 1994. Currently, he holds the position of Professor at Moi University, Kenya. Over the years, Professor Akama has taught both undergraduate and postgraduate courses in tourism policy and tourism planning, cultural tourism and destination management. His research interest is in the areas of tourism development in the Third World, tourism planning, and cultural tourism. He has widely published in those areas in journals and has made several chapter contributions. He recently coedited a book entitled, Ethnography of the Gusii of Western Kenya: A Vanishing Cultural Heritage (Edwin Mellen Press Ltd, 2006).
David Bell is senior lecturer in Critical Human Geography and leader of the Urban Cultures & Consumption research cluster in the School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK, where he is also a Deputy Director of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Gender Studies. David's research [Page ix]interests include urban cultural policy, lifestyles and consumption, geographies of sexualities, and science and technology studies. Recent articles have explored temporary outdoor ice rinks, the social impacts of the UK smoking ban, and “alcotourism.”
A.P. Clevenger has carried out research during the last 12 years assessing the performance of mitigation measures designed to reduce habitat fragmentation on the Trans-Canada Highway (TCH) in Banff National Park, Alberta. Since 2002, he has been a research wildlife biologist for the Western Transportation Institute (WTI) at Montana State University. Tony is currently a member of the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on Effects of Highways on Natural Communities and Ecosystems. Since 1986, he has published over 40 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has coauthored three books including Road Ecology: Science and Solutions (Island Press, 2003). His Banff research has resulted in 17 peer-reviewed publications since 2000. Tony is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, has a master's degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and a doctoral degree in Zoology from the University of León, Spain.
David Crouch is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Geography and Senior Research Fellow at the University of Derby, UK. His research interests relate to tourism and leisure, nature, landscape, consumption, identity, visual culture, and performance. His relevant books include: Leisure/Tourism Geographies (edited book, Routledge, 1999); Visual Cultures and Tourism (Berg publishers, 2003) (coedited with Nina Lubbren); and Media and the Tourist Imagination (Routledge, 2005) (coedited with Rhona Jackson and Felix Thompson). In addition David has published many articles and book chapters in cultural geography, tourism and leisure studies. David is a regular speaker at international conferences. He is also a part-professional artist, having staged several solo exhibitions of his work and made contributions to art-related publications and events.
Keith G. Debbage is a professor of urban development in the Department of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA. His specific research interests include airline route networks and how they shape regional economies, and the economic geography of the tourist industry. Dr. Debbage is also the author of over 50 research publications in book chapters, contracted reports and various academic journals, including the Annals of Tourism Research, the Journal of Air Transport Management, the Journal of Transport Geography, Policy Studies Review, Regional Studies, Tourism Management, Transportation Quarterly, and Urban Geography. He was appointed in 2007 to the UNC Tomorrow Scholars Council by UNC System President Erskine Bowles and was selected as a GlaxoSmithKline Faculty Fellow with the Institute for Emerging Issues at North Carolina State University in 2008.
Tim Edensor teaches Human Geography at Manchester Metropolitan University. He is the author of Tourists at the Taj (Routledge, 1998), National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life (Berg, 2002) and Industrial Ruins: Space, Aesthetics and Materiality (Berg, 2005). He has written widely on tourism and has also published articles and chapters on automobility, materiality, memory, mobility, national identity, urban regeneration, and global commodities. He is currently investigating the histories and geographies of building stone, the rhythms of tourism, and the class-oriented contestations over the display of Christmas lights on homes.
Nigel Evans joined the University of Teesside in 2005 as Deputy Dean Teesside Business School, following 15 years at The University of Northumbria in Newcastle, UK, which included periods leading the university's Tourism Department and travel and tourism degree programs. Prior to academia his commercial career included senior experience with a London based international tour operator. His research interests focus on structural and strategic [Page x]changes in the international travel industry, the application of management tools, plus strategic alliances in the travel industry. He is the lead author of the book Strategic Management for Travel and Tourism (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002, coedited with David Campbell and George Stonehouse).
Daniel R. Fesenmaier is a professor and Director of the National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce (NLTeC) for the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management at Temple University, USA. Dr. Fesenmaier is author of over 200 articles dealing with tourism marketing, advertising evaluation, and information technology. He has coauthored a monograph, coedited six books, and is co-founding editor of Tourism Analysis. Dr. Fesenmaier received his PhD in Geography from the University of Western Ontario, Canada.
John Fletcher is Director of the International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research and Head of Bournemouth University Graduate School, UK. As an economist he has developed an international reputation through his pioneering work in tourism impact and development research. He is the author of numerous articles and book chapters on tourism's economic impact and is coauthor of the leading textbook, Tourism: Principles and Practice (Edinburgh Gate, UK: Pearson Education, 2008), now in its fourth edition and Editor of the International Journal of Tourism Research and Special Adviser to Tourism Economics. He has undertaken economic and development research for international agencies, including the World Tourism Organization, the World Travel and Tourism Council, Development Banks, the EU, UNDP, and USAID.
Adam Ford, MSc Biology, is a wildlife research associate with seven years of experience working in conservation, ecology, and international community development. His work has taken him from the South Pacific to Eastern Africa, and from the temperate rainforests of western Vancouver Island to the native short-grass prairie of eastern Alberta. Currently, he is based in the Rocky Mountains of Banff National Park with research interests in the effects of roads on wildlife, mammal ecology and the effects of landscape structure on animal movement.
Robert C. Ford is a professor of Management at the University of Central Florida's College of Business Administration, USA. He joined UCF in 1993 as Chair of the Department of Hospitality Management and later became Associate Dean for Graduate and External Programs. He has authored or coauthored over 100 articles, books, and presentations on management and organizations focusing on human resources, services, and change management topics, especially on achieving service excellence in healthcare and hospitality. His published books include Principles of Management coauthored with Cherril Heaton (R.J. Brady, 1980); Organization Theory with Barry R. Armandi, and Cherrill P. Heaton, (Longman Higher Education. 1988); Managing the Guest Experience in Hospitality with Cheryl Heaton (Delmar Publishing, 2000) and Achieving Service Excellence with Myron Fottler and Cherril Heaton (Health Administration Press, 2002).
Adrian Franklin trained as a social anthropologist in the UK, and has held professorial positions at the University of Bristol, UK, the University of Oslo, Norway, and the University of Tasmania, Australia. His books include Animal Nation: The True Story of Animals and Australia (University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Sydney, 2006); Animals and Modern Cultures (Sage, 1999), Nature and Social Theory (Sage Publications Ltd, 2002) and Tourism (Sage Publications, London, 2003). City Life is due to be published in 2009. He is coeditor of Tourist Studies (with Mike Crang) and has written extensively on travel and tourism theory and the impact that modern mobilities have had on everyday life and the ordering of global modernity.
[Page xi]Suzanne Gallaway is a doctoral candidate in the Geography Department at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA. She is currently working on her dissertation titled “The Geography of Industry Clusters: Tourism Development Strategies within the Appalachian Regional Commission area.” Ms. Gallaway expects to graduate in 2009 and previously worked as an urban planner for the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County City Planning Department.
Yue Ge is an urban tourism planner with extensive experience in China. He has worked as an urban tourism planner for the China Academy of Urban Planning and Design for three years. He has consulted on various projects in China, on topics including urban and regional tourism planning, tourism development planning, urban master planning, and policymaking. He is presently working on his doctoral studies in the Urban and Regional Science program, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. His research interests currently focus on the impacts of natural hazards on coastal cities in America.
Nelson Graburn, educated at Cambridge, McGill, and University of Chicago, has taught Anthropology at U.C. Berkeley since 1964. He has held positions at Northwestern, University of Aix-en-Provence, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, the National University of Kyushu, Fukuoka, the Universidade Federal, Porto Alegre, Brazil, and since 2007 London Metropolitan University. He has carried out research among the Canadian Inuit since 1959, with excursions to Greenland and Alaska, focusing on kinship, social change, commercial arts and, recently, ethnic identity, tourism, and museums. He has studied Japanese domestic tourism since 1974 and more recently Japanese multiculturalism and tourism in, to and from China and Korea.
Ulrike Gretzel is an assistant professor at the Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA and Director of the Laboratory for Intelligent Systems in Tourism. She received her PhD in Communication from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and holds a masters' degree in International Business from the Vienna University for Economics and Business Administration. Her research focuses on persuasion in human-technology interaction, the representation of sensory and emotional aspects of tourism experiences, and the development and use of intelligent systems in tourism to support travelers' information search, decision-making processes, and experiences.
Rich Harrill— author, lecturer, researcher, consultant, and traveler—is director of the International Tourism Research Institute at the University of South Carolina, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, USA. He also directs the university's Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel & Tourism Industry Center. The institute conducts local and international projects and research; the center focuses on US tourism industry competitiveness. His academic and professional experience combines tourism with economic development and urban planning. Dr. Harrill is editor of Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing (American Hotel & Lodging Association, 2005), the first comprehensive textbook for the destination management industry.
Andrew Holden is Professor of Environment and Tourism and also the Director for the Centre for Research into the Environment and Sustainable Tourism Development (CREST) at the University of Bedfordshire, UK. He is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in London. His research focuses on the interaction between human behavior and the natural environment within the context of tourism.
Keith Hollinshead is an Anglo-Australian researcher of the representation of populations and their cherished inheritances. Once a student of Romano-British history, he now works via transdisciplinary/postdisciplinary approaches on the iconology of projected places and [Page xii]signified pasts. Having worked mainly at state government level in various regions of Australia—including a spell as Program Manager for the Yulara International Tourist Resort at Uluru in Centralia. Keith obtained his doctorate at Texas A&M University, USA where he specialized in the politics of tourism. He is currently Professor of Public Culture at the University of Bedfordshire, UK.
G.R. Jennings, PhD, is Associate Professor of Tourism Management, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Australia. Her research agenda focuses on quality tourism experiences, sustainability, ethics and responsible practice, and the use of qualitative methodologies. She is a co-founder of Qualitative Research in Tourism and Hospitality Network, QUALNET4RiTH. Gayle has sole authored and edited a number of books, written book chapters, and journal articles across a range of topics relating to theoretical paradigms that inform research processes, water-based tourism, and quality tourism experiences.
Brian King is Making VU Program Director in the Office of the Pro Vice-Chancellor (Institutional Services) at Victoria University, Australia. He is also a professorial associate with the Centre for Tourism and Services Research. His research has focused on tourism in the Asia-Pacific region and he is founding and current Joint Editor-in-Chief of the journal Tourism, Culture and Communication. He is a Fellow of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism (IAST).
Bernard Lane is a consultant, writer, and lecturer specializing in sustainable rural tourism, heritage conservation, and rural development. He is an associate of Red Kite Environment (http://www.redkite-environment.co.uk), focusing on the management and sustainable development of heritage sites, protected areas, and rural regions. Clients have included the OECD, national and local governments, among others. With Bill Bramwell, he founded and is coeditor of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, and is also an associate editor of the Journal of Ecotourism. He is a visiting research fellow at the universities of Bristol and Sheffield Hallam in the UK.
Naomi Leite is a doctoral candidate in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. The co-founder of Berkeley's interdisciplinary Tourism Studies Working Group, her tourism-related publications have addressed cultural memory and constructions of heritage, museums, tourist identity and experience, materiality, and place. Her current research focuses on the implications of global interconnection for emergent identities, ethnic and spiritual “kinship,” and belonging. She has conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Portugal, the USA, in online communities, and throughout the Portuguese diaspora.
Philip Long is Principal Research Fellow with the Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK. He is also Course Director of the MA Cultural Tourism program. Phil is editor of books on royal tourism and on tourism and festivals. He is a Board member of the International Festivals and Events Association (Europe) and the UK Tourism Management Institute and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Event Management.
Mišela Mavrič is a doctoral candidate in Sociology at Lancaster University who has a BA in Tourism Studies (Turistica, Slovenia) and an MA in Tourism and Leisure (Lancaster University). Her research interests revolve around travel, tourism, mobilities, and cosmopolitanism. She is particularly focusing on “roots” and “routs” in mobile tourist performances and practices, and exploring “new” mobile research methods.
Joseph E. Mbaiwa is a senior research fellow in Tourism Studies at the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of Botswana. His research focus is on tourism [Page xiii]development, rural livelihoods, and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. He has so far coauthored a book on tourism and the environment in the Okavango Delta, published over 20 journal articles, 10 book chapters and several conference papers on tourism development, livelihoods, and conservation in the Okavango Delta.
Robert Mugerauer, Professor and Dean Emeritus in the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Washington, specializes in applying contemporary theory to the built environment. He is author of Interpretations on Behalf of Place, Environmental Interpretations (State University of New York Press, 1994), and, with David Seamon, coeditor of Dwelling, Place, and Environment (Springer, 1985). Recent essays on tourism include “The Tensed Embrace of Tourism and Traditional Environments: Exclusionary Practices in Cancun, Cuba, and South Florida,” and with Monika Kaup, “Reconfiguring the Caribbean's Sense of Place: From Fixed Identity to Fluid Hybridity.” Currently he is working on bio-technio-power in medical tourism.
Sanjay K. Nepal is an associate professor in the Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA. He has a PhD in Geography from the University of Berne, Switzerland and a master's degree in regional and rural development planning. His research interests are on participatory conservation in developing countries, tourism and ecotourism impacts in remote locations, and in general aspects of tourism and change in mountainous regions. He has conducted fieldwork in Nepal, Thailand, Canada, and most recently in China, the majority of research locations are near or within national parks and protected areas.
Aylin Orbaşlı, PhD, trained as an architect and specializes in the conservation and management of historic buildings and places. She works as an independent consultant advising on heritage protection and management in the context of tourism development internationally. She is also a senior lecturer in the Department of Architecture at Oxford Brookes University and the author of two books, Tourists in Historic Towns: urban conservation and visitor management (Spon, 2000) and Architectural Conservation (Blackwell, 2008).
Stephen Page is the Scottish Enterprise Professor of Tourism at the University of Stirling, UK. He has worked in the UK, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, and France and has written, edited or contributed to 20 leading books on tourism. He has worked with many private sector and public sector agencies on tourism consultancy in terms of tourism and leisure strategies, feasibility studies, problem-solving, including projects such as the Channel Tunnel and Auckland's Sky Tower in New Zealand. He is also an editor of Tourism Management and is a regular contributor to industry conferences and meetings as a speaker.
Michael Pearlman is a senior lecturer in the School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing at Victoria University, Australia. He is also a research associate with the Centre for Tourism and Services Research. The main focus of his research is the planning, development, and management of regional tourism. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Network of Asia-Pacific Education and Training Institutes in Tourism (APETIT) with responsibility for fostering research and development activities.
William C. Peeper retired as President of the Orland/Orange County Convention & Visitors Bureau with over 35 years of service in the convention bureau business. He was the founding executive director of the not-for-profit Orlando/Orange County Convention and Visitors Bureau, Inc. in 1984. He oversaw the growth of the bureau's sales and marketing staff from two to its current 170 level with offices in five countries and convention sales offices in four US cities. Peeper has received numerous awards and is one of two inaugural inductees into the University of Central Florida's Rosen School of Hospitality Management's Hall of Fame.
[Page xiv]Alison Phipps is Professor of Languages and Intercultural Studies at the University of Glasgow, UK, where she is Associate Dean in the Faculty of Education, and teaches modern languages, comparative literature, anthropology, and intercultural studies. Her books include Modern Languages: Learning and Teaching in an Intercultural Field (Sage Publications Ltd, 2004) with Mike Gonzalez, Critical Pedagogy: Political Approaches to Languages and Intercultural Communication (Multilingual Matters Ltd, 2004) with Manuela Guilherme, Tourism and Intercultural Exchange Channel View Publications, 2005 with Gavin Jack, and Learning the Arts of Linguistic Survival: Tourism, Languaging, Life Channel View Publications, 2007. She coedits the journals Tourism and Cultural Change, Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, and the book series Languages, Intercultural Communication and Education.
Jess Ponting is an assistant professor in sustainable tourism at San Diego State University, USA, recently relocated from the University of the South Pacific. He has consulted for both the private and public sector in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and Fiji. Jess' research has empirically focused on various aspects of surfing tourism while theoretically helping to advance understanding of decommodified tourism practice and research; socially constructed tourist spaces; relationships between the media and tourism practice; humanistic psychology as it relates to the tourist experience; and the reorientation of surfing tourism in less developed countries to a sustainable trajectory.
Bernadette Quinn, PhD, is a geographer who lectures and researches in the Department of Tourism at the Dublin Institute of Technology, Republic of Ireland. Her research interests include festivals and events, tourism and cultural change and tourism mobilities. Her work has been published in such journals as Urban Studies, Tourism Geographies, Social and Cultural Geography, and the Annals of Tourism Research.
Kathleen Rettie has more than 30 years' experience working for Parks Canada in the mountain national parks. Currently, she is a social scientist with the Western and Northern Service Centre, Parks Canada Agency. She has a PhD in Social Anthropology from St. Andrews University, UK, and an MA in Resources and the Environment from the University of Calgary, Canada. She is an adjunct associate professor in Geography at the University of Calgary, a Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society and a Fellow of the Royal Anthropology Institute. Her research focuses on the human aspects of national parks.
Linda K. Richter is professor emerita of political science at Kansas State University where she taught public policy, ethics, and gender politics. Her primary research area is tourism politics about which she has written three books and over 60 monographs, chapters, and articles. She has done extensive field research in India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and has lectured on tourism in 18 countries. She served on the US Travel and Tourism Advisory Board and as Associate editor of Annals of Tourism Research and the Encyclopedia of Tourism.
Tony Seaton is Professor of Tourism Behaviour at the University of Bedfordshire, UK. Educated in England and Scotland, he holds degrees in the Arts, Social Sciences, and Travel, including an MA in Literature from Oxford and a Tourism PhD from Strathclyde University. His main work has been in destination marketing, cultural tourism, and travel history. He has lectured, researched, and been visiting professor in over 60 countries, and been consultant to the UNTWO, European Union, USAID, and several governments on destination development. He has been researching thanatourism, a word he was first to use and theorize, since 1996.
Richard Sharpley is Professor of Tourism at the University of Lincoln, UK, and Head of the Department of Tourism and Recreation. His principal research interests include the sociol of tourism with a specific focus on tourist consumer behavior, tourism, and international [Page xv]development, tourism in island micro-states, and rural tourism. He has published in all of these areas, and has also written/edited a number of more general books including The Management of Tourism (Sage, 2005).
Mick Smith is Associate Professor and Queen's National Scholar in the Department of Philosophy and School of Environmental Studies at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. He is the author of An Ethics of Place: Radical Ecology, Postmodernity and Social Theory (SUNY, 2001) and coauthor, with Rosaleen Duffy, of The Ethics of Tourism Development (Routledge, 2005). His main interests are in environmental ethics; the ecological ramifications of political and social theory, and in different understandings, interpretations, and emotional responses to natural environments. He currently sits on the editorial boards of Environmental Ethics and Environmental Values, and is coeditor of Emotion, Space and Society.
Amanda L. Stronza is an environmental anthropologist and Assistant Professor in the Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA. She has a BA in International Affairs from the George Washington University, USA, an MA in Latin American Studies and PhD in Anthropology from the University of Florida, USA. She was a Lang Postdoctoral Fellow in Anthropological Sciences at Stanford. Her research focuses on community-based conservation and ecotourism in the tropics. She co-directs the Applied Biodiversity Science NSF-IGERT Program.
Peter E. Tarlow, PhD, founder and president of Tourism & More Inc. is an expert specializing in the impact of crime and terrorism on the tourism industry, and in event risk management. He lectures on tourism, crime, and terrorism to police forces and security and tourism professionals throughout the world. He also works with multiple US federal, state, and local government agencies and major universities. “Tourism Tidbits,” an electronic newsletter on tourism and travel, is written by Peter Tarlow and is read by tourism and travel professionals around the world in English-, Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Turkish-language editions.
David J. Telfer is Associate Professor in the Department of Tourism and Environment at Brock University, Canada. His research interests include: links between tourism and development theory, backward economic linkages of tourism, and the relationships between tourism and agriculture. He is currently involved in an ongoing research project on rural tourism development in Japan. He is coauthor of Tourism and Development in the Developing World (Routledge, 2008) and coeditor of Tourism and Development Concepts and Issues (Channel View Publications, 2002) (both with Richard Sharpley).
Hazel Tucker is Senior Lecturer in Tourism at the University of Otago, New Zealand. She has a PhD in Social Anthropology from the University of Durham, UK, and is author of Living With Tourism: Negotiating Identity in a Turkish Village (Routledge, 2003) and coeditor of Tourism and Postcolonialism (Routledge, 2004). She has also published several journal articles and book chapters on tourism in Cappadocia, Turkey, on tourists' on-tour performances and on bed and breakfast business and host-guest relationships in New Zealand.
John Urry is a Professor of Sociology at Lancaster University, UK. His BA, MA Economics, PhD Sociology are all from University of Cambridge, UK. His honors and appointments include: Honorary Doctorate Roskilde University, Fellow, Royal Society of Arts, Chair RAE Panel 1996, 2001, Founding Academician and Member of Council, Academy of Social Sciences, Coeditor of Mobilities, and Editor International Library of Sociology, Routledge. He is the Director, Centre for Mobilities Research at Lancaster University, UK. Recent books include Sociology beyond Societies (2000), The Tourist Gaze. Second Edition (2002), Global Complexity (2003), Tourism Mobilities. Places to Play, Places in Play (authored with Mimi [Page xvi]Sheller 2004), Performing Tourist Places (with Joergen Ole Baerenholdt, Wolfgang Framke, Jonas Larsen, and Michael Haldrup—Ashgate, 2004), Automobilities (Sage, 2005) (edited with Mike Featherstone and Nigel Thrift), Mobile Technologies of the City (Routledge, 2006) (edited with Mimi Sheller), Mobilities, Networks, Geographies (authored with Jonas Larsen, and Kay Axhausen, 2006), Mobilities (Polity Press, 2007).
John Walton is Professor of Social History in the Institute of Northern Studies, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK. He was founding president of the International Commission for the History of Travel and Tourism and edits the Journal of Tourism History. His most recent books are Riding on Rainbows: Blackpool Pleasure Beach and its Place in British Popular Culture (Skelter, 2007) (with Gary Cross), The Playful Crowd: Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century (Columbia University Press, 2005), and, as editor, Histories of Tourism (Channel View, 2005).
Stephen Wearing is an associate professor at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia. He has been responsible for a variety of projects in the area of Leisure and Tourism Studies at an international and local level. He has directed a number of leisure and tourism community based projects in Papua New Guinea, Costa Rica, Solomon Islands, Guyana, and Australia, receiving a special citation from the Costa Rican Government for services towards community, conservation, and youth and an outstanding contribution award from Youth Challenge International in Canada. He has authored eight books and over 100 articles dealing with issues surrounding leisure and sustainable tourism. His practical experience as a town planner, environmental planner, and park planner at local, state, and international level have provided him with experiences that he brings to his teaching and research. He has been project director for a range of social sciences in natural resource management projects and research and a team leader for a variety of ecotourism, volunteer tourism, and outdoor education activities internationally.
R.E. Wood is Professor of Sociology at the Camden campus of Rutgers University, USA. He has been a resource editor for Annals of Tourism Research and was coeditor of Tourism, Ethnicity and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. He is the author of From Marshall Plan to Debt Crisis: Foreign Aid and Development Choices in the World Economy (University of California Press, 1986) and numerous articles on tourism's relationship to culture, ethnicity, development, and globalization. His recent work has focused on the cruise ship industry as a paradigmatic case of neoliberal globalization.
Simon Woodward, PhD, is Senior Research Fellow at Leeds Metropolitan University specializing in the heritage and tourism sectors. He has worked in a wide range of destinations throughout Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, advising public sector clients and their partners on how to reconcile tourism development with asset protection.
This is the first SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies. It has been a project in the making since we first embarked on it in Spring 2006. Our idea was to engage in cross-Atlantic collaboration that would bring academic perspectives from our respective continents into dialogue with scholars from other regions around the world. Our intention was to build a knowledge base illustrating how “tourism studies” was developing as a field of study and practice. In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the variety of academic genres and critical approaches relating to tourism, as new themes and issues have emerged. Our aim was to engage with academics as well as practitioners that were in a position to offer a benchmark statement on their particular field of interest. Clarifying the scope of tourism studies was the first important challenge, for that would determine what themes and topics should be considered for inclusion and which authors we could both agree upon to invite.
The spectrum of themes and topics selected for inclusion is, in itself, testimony to the multidisciplinary approach that has marked the evolving study of tourism. Of course, we are very much aware that there are omissions. In the reviewer's comments on our initial proposal for the SAGE Handbook, the most common line of critique revolved around our choosing of some topics and the exclusion of others. While the review process helped us as it should, it also reinforced that a handbook could never deliver a complete set of contents to appease all. In selecting what we have, we hope we have covered different approaches as well as accentuating emergent trends and inevitable overlaps. Importantly, the message from all of this supports the very idea of such a productive and lively field of enquiry. Also symptomatic of the health of tourism studies is the reality that for every topic or theme there are many fine scholars in the world. Therefore, our choices of whom to invite as contributors often turned on little more than the flip of a coin. We regret that we were unable to ask all of those we considered to contribute, but in the end, we were delighted with, and gratified by, the collection of authors we were able to enlist.Organization of This Volume
The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies aims to provide academics across many disciplines with a definitive, critical, and indispensable resource and guide. It is not located in any one particular discipline, but seeks to reflect the wide-ranging conceptual approaches to the subject of tourism. Attention has been given to new perspectives on the core elements of the tourism sector and to recent emerging themes and issues. The overall thrust of the handbook is to provide much needed critical depth to tourism studies and to guide the reader through the central themes, conflicts, and problems in a clear and coherent manner. As shown, following a general introduction by the editors, the handbook is divided into three parts.Part I—Approaches to Tourism Studies
This section addresses differing positions adopted across the disciplines and how these have advanced over recent years. Chapters in this section attempt to provide comprehensive and [Page xviii]critical accounts of key disciplinary contributions to tourism studies, as well as approaches and critiques on specialized fields pertaining to tourism studies (e.g., hospitality studies and environmental studies). Cutting edge perspectives on the themes, issues, and problems surrounding the conceptualization of tourism and its study are to be found in these chapters.Part II—Key Topics in Tourism
This section strives to provide state-of-the-art reviews of theory and research relating to central themes that preoccupy scholars of tourism. Chapters address tourism types, sectors, organization and planning, including conservation and sustainability topics and issues. Various chapters also help disseminate key empirical studies and frameworks that have enabled strong conceptual and research-related advance in the field.Part III—Critical Issues and Emerging Perspectives
This section address recent learning and emerging themes that allow the reader to interpret tourism in more meaningful ways. A wide coverage is provided here that reflects a diversity of intellectual approaches to newer study areas such as postcolonialism and thanatourism (or dark tourism), theoretical/methodological insights and critiques (e.g., of global tourism operations, gender discourses), as well as emergent technologies of travel and new mobilities.Chapter 39—Conclusion
The concluding chapter of The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies takes a look at past omissions and emergent futures for tourism studies. We attempt to summarize here some of the issues, conflicts and challenges that will face tourism scholars, as well as some new themes and topics.Acknowledgements
Much has changed in the two years that have elapsed since we undertook this rather daunting task. New positions and responsibilities, the peaking of (in the UK at least), the Research Assessment Exercise, along with the ever-quickening pace and pressures of academic life, indeed, life in general, have all conspired to slow progress. For at least one author and one of the editors, this included the loss of a parent, which quickly turns all else into a phantasmagoria. This project would have remained unfinished were it not for the support, patience, and cooperation of chapter authors, students, friends, and family.
We would like to thank the following for assistance in the multitude of tasks involved, including reviewing and (copy)editing various chapters, providing helpful comments, suggestions, and references: Blanca Camargo, Michael Clement, Wesley Dean, Ulrike Gretzel, Christopher Menzel and Justin Taillon, all from Texas A&M University. Special thanks go to Justin Taillon for his assistance on various chapters, including conducting literature searches and reference checks where needed. Thanks to Xiangping “Coco” Gao for assistance in developing JPEG images from slides, as well as to Chris Rojek and Jai Seaman at SAGE Publications, [Page xix]the Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism, at Texas A&M University, and the Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change at Leeds Metropolitan University. We would also like to acknowledge the invaluable role played by Brian Smith, who created and maintained a database to keep track of author, chapter, and handbook information, did numerous reference checks, undertook with great efficiency and under heavy time constraints the multiple challenges of formatting and compiling chapters containing widely divergent formatting styles, language styles, and word processing idiosyncrasies, and also helped to ensure the final copy and index were as consistent and accurate as possible.
That there is now The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies is of practical and symbolic import—another marker of a growing field of study and a “community of scientists” whose research, voices, issues, and concerns are slowly transcending linguistic, cultural, and disciplinary barriers to find common spaces for knowledge sharing, discussion, and debate. It is hoped that this SAGE Handbook will provide libraries and researchers with an invaluable resource relating to the diversity and maturity of tourism as a field of study and will offer a comprehensive guide to the excellent work that we know is taking place from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.