- Subject index
The SAGE Handbook of Special Education brings together the most up to date knowledge of this area and will serve as the major source book of authoritative information and ideas about current and future directions for special education. It aims to examine the intricate relations between theory, research, and practice, and places a particular emphasis on international policies such as Education for All, and inclusive education as a strategy for achieving it. This comprehensive, research-based work, assembles scholarship on an international level, and covers topics that transcend national boundaries.
Chapter 19: An Epistemology of Special Education
An Epistemology of Special Education
In February 2002, Donald Rumsfeld, the US Secretary for Defense, gave a notorious news briefing in which he said: ‘There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know’ (12 February 2002, Department of Defense news briefing). Rumsfeld's analysis does not tell the whole story about the problems of knowledge and how we come by it and professional epistemologists would probably have difficulty accepting the simplicity of Rumsfeld's ‘known knowns’. Epistemology takes as problematic the whole subject of knowledge, and the bald ascription ...