The SAGE Handbook for Research in Education stimulates and encourages students, faculty, and educational practitioners, including individuals in education, government, and the private sector who conduct applied and policy-oriented educational research, to place the pursuit of ideas at the epicentre of their research-from framing meaningful problems to identifying and addressing key challenges to the reporting and dissemination of their findings.
The term “instructional leadership” derives from early attempts to explain the unexpectedly higher achievement of low-socioeconomic status students in high-poverty schools during the 1970s (Brookover & Lezotte, 1979; Edmonds, 1979, 1982; Edmonds & Frederiksen, 1978; Lezotte & Passalacqua, 1978). Known as effective schools research, these studies generated a set of characteristics common to effective schools that typically included the following list (Edmonds, 1979, 1982):
- Instructional leadership
- Schoolwide focus on instruction
- Orderly and safe environment
- High expectations for student achievement
- Use of student achievement data for decision making and planning
Critiques and replications of this work showed a fairly stable, if contested, listing of similar constructs concerning the conditions of effective schools. Among the contests was a debate over whether a schoolwide focus on ...