This major international handbook provides a complete review and guide to past and present knowledge in this essential field of inquiry. Assembling an outstanding team of scholars from around the world, it comprehensively explores the current state of the art in academic thinking and the current structures and processes for the administration of public policy following this period of rapid transformation and change.
Representative Bureaucracy in Historical Context
Representative bureaucracy pertains to the extent to which the bureaucracy responds to the preferences of society. Pitkin (1967) identified different forms of substantive representation, including the relatively common forms of trustees, delegates and politicos. A trustee is someone who uses his or her discretion to make decisions on behalf of, and in the best interests of the represented; a delegate is someone who tries to discern the desires of the represented; and a politico is someone who acts to maximize a political position or status. Last, symbolic representation involves the general public's belief that it is fairly represented. It is achieved by visible evidence of salient group members in government rather than by proportional representation or policy congruence. ...