This major international handbook provides a complete review and guide to past and present knowledge in this essential field of inquiry. Assembling an outstanding team of scholars from around the world, it comprehensively explores the current state of the art in academic thinking and the current structures and processes for the administration of public policy following this period of rapid transformation and change.
Chapter 16: Implementation Perspectives: Status and Reconsideration
Implementation Perspectives: Status and Reconsideration
Although the field of implementation research is barely thirty years old, implementation has already been analyzed from many different perspectives representing different research strategies, evaluation standards, concepts, focal subject areas and methodologies (see the Introduction to this section on Implementation). The purpose of this chapter is two-fold. It first performs a critical review of some of the major contributions to the literature. This examination will follow the development of the field. Commentators have already identified three generations of implementation research (Goggin, 1986), which will be presented and assessed below. These are the pioneers with their explorative case studies, the second generation studies with their top-down and bottom-up research strategies and synthesis models, and a third generation ...