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Chapter 23: Stereotype Threat
Stereotype threat occurs when people are in a situation where a negative identity-based stereotype can be applied to their performance. Concern about the stereotype can lead to decreased performance on a stereotype-relevant task. Initial research examined stereotype threat for African-Americans in intellectual testing situations and for women in math testing situations. In the current chapter, we review the following: (1)The generalizability of stereotype threat effects. (2) Research examining whether stereotypes are activated in stereotype-threat situations. (3) The mediating processes between a situation of threat and an inferior performance outcome. (4) The role of varying group identities in stereotype threat outcomes. (5) The effect of ‘stereotype lift,’ whereby positively stereotyped group members seem to gain a boost in performance in stereotype threat situations.