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John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner & Kerry Kawakami

In: The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination

Chapter 19: Racism

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Racism is a form of intergroup reaction (including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) that systematically advantages one's own group and/or disadvantages another group defined by racial difference. Racism occurs at different social levels-culturally, institutionally, and individually. Individual racism, which is the focus of this chapter, involves the actions of individuals who act unfairly to restrict the opportunities of racialized groups. Although blatant racism continues to exist, it has substantially declined and new, more subtle forms of individual racism have emerged. In this chapter, we examine the psychological foundation of racism – social categorization. We then focus our review on four contemporary approaches to individual racism: symbolic, modern, aversive, and implicit racism. We conclude by summarizing dynamic similarities and differences among these perspectives and identifying the ...

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