The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
Publication Year: 2010
Subject: Prejudice & Stereotyping
Representing both traditional and emerging perspectives, this multi-disiplinary and truly international volume will serve as a seminal resource for students and scholars.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Overview of the Topic
- Chapter 1: Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination: Theoretical and Empirical Overview
- Chapter 2: Historical Overview
- Chapter 3: Measuring Prejudice, Stereotypes and Discrimination
Part II: Basic Processes and Causes of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
- Chapter 4: Social Cognitive Neural Processes
- Chapter 5: Evolutionary Processes
- Chapter 6: Developmental Perspectives
- Chapter 7: Cognitive Processes
- Chapter 8: Affective Processes
- Chapter 9: Motivational Processes
- Chapter 10: Individual Differences
- Chapter 11: Social Identity and Self-Categorization
- Chapter 12: Ethnocentrism and Group Realities
- Chapter 13: Social Structure
- Chapter 14: Intergroup Competition
- Chapter 15: Mass Media
Part III: Expression of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
- Chapter 16: Attitudes and Intergroup Relations
- Chapter 17: Intergroup Dyadic Interactions
- Chapter 18: Hate Crime
- Chapter 19: Racism
- Chapter 20: Sexism
- Chapter 21: Heterosexism
- Chapter 22: Anti-Immigration Bias
Part IV: Social Impact of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
- Chapter 23: Stereotype Threat
- Chapter 24: Internalized Devaluation and Situational Threat
- Chapter 25: Coping with Bias
- Chapter 26: Institutional Bias
- Chapter 27: Bias in Organizations
- Chapter 28: Public Policy
- Chapter 29: Health and Health Care Disparities
Part V: Combating Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
- Chapter 30: Self-Regulation and Bias
- Chapter 31: Prejudice and Perceiving Multiple Identities
- Chapter 32: Social Categorization
- Chapter 33: Intergroup Contact
- Chapter 34: Individual Mobility
- Chapter 35: Collective Action and Social Change
Part VI: Commentary: Future Research on Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination
Introduction and editorial arrangement © John. F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick and Victoria M. Esses 2010
Chapter 1 © John. F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick and Victoria M. Esses 2010
Chapter 2 © John Duckitt 2010
Chapter 3 © Joshua Correll, Charles M. Judd, Bernadette Park and Bernd Wittenbrink 2010
Chapter 4 © Susanne Quadflieg, Malia F. Mason and C. Neil Macrae 2010
Chapter 5 © Mark Schaller, Lucian Gideon Conway, III and K. Michelle Peavy 2010
Chapter 6 © Melanie Killen, Cameron B. Richardson and Megan Clark Kelly 2010
Chapter 7 © Susan T. Fiske and Ann Marie Russell 2010
Chapter 8 © Eliot R. Smith and Diane M. Mackie 2010
Chapter 9 © Vincent Yzerbyt 2010
Chapter 10 © Leanne Son Hing and Mark P. Zanna 2010
Chapter 11 © Dominic Abrams and Michael Hogg 2010
Chapter 12 © Jacques-Philippe Leyens and Stephanie Demoulin 2010
Chapter 13 ©Amanda B. Diekman, Alice. H. Eagly and Amanda M. Johnston 2010
Chapter 14 © Victoria M. Esses, Lynne M. Jackson and Caroline Bennett-AbuAyyash 2010
Chapter 15 © Diana C. Mutz and Seth K. Goldman 2010
Chapter 16 © Gregory R. Maio, Geoffrey Haddock, Antony S. R. Manstead
Chapter 17 © Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton 2010
Chapter 18 © Rafela M. Dancygier and Donald P. Green 2010
Chapter 19 © John F. Dovidio, Samuel L. Gaertner and Kerry Kawakami 2010
Chapter 20 © Peter Glick and Laurie A. Rudman 2010
Chapter 21 © Michelle R. Hebl, Charlie L. Law and Eden King 2010
Chapter 22 © Ulrich Wagner, Oliver Christ and Wilhelm Heitmeyer 2010
Chapter 23 © Diane M. Quinn, Rachel W. Kallen and Steven J. Spencer 2010
Chapter 24 © Jennifer Crocker and Julie A. Garcia 2010
Chapter 25 © Brenda Major and Sarah S. M. Townsend 2010
Chapter 26 © P. J. Henry 2010
Chapter 27 ©Alexis N. Smith, Arthur P. Brief and Adrienne Colella 2010
Chapter 28 © Kristina R. Schmukler, Ana Rasquiza, Julie Dimmitt and Faye J. Crosby 2010
Chapter 29 © LouisA. Penner, Terrance L. Albrecht, Heather Orom, Donyell K. Coleman and Willie Underwood, III 2010
Chapter 30 © Margo J. Monteith, Steven A. Arthur and Sara McQueary Flynn 2010
Chapter 31 © Richard J. Crisp 2010
Chapter 32 © Samuel L. Gaertner, John F. Dovidio and Melissa A. Houlette 2010
Chapter 33 © Nicole Tausch and Miles Hewstone 2010
Chapter 34 © Naomi Ellemers and Colette van Laar 2010
Chapter 35 © Stephen C. Wright 2010
Chapter 36 © Thomas F. Pettigrew 2010
© First published 2010
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Notes on Contributors[Page x]
Dominic Abrams received his PhD from the University of Kent, UK. After holding positions at Bristol and Dundee Universities he returned to Kent where he is Professor of Social Psychology and director of the Centre for the Study of Group Processes. He is a Fellow of SPSSI, SPSP, and the UK Academy of Social Sciences. He has been closely associated with social identity theory, particularly working on the relationship between social inclusion and social identity. His research in both social and developmental psychology spans basic intergroup processes from childhood to old age, and he is also working with government and national organizations to bring social psychological research and theory on prejudice into their policy frameworks.
Terrance L. Albrecht is the Interim Associate Director for Population Sciences and Leader of the Communication and Behavioral Oncology Program at the Karmanos Cancer Institute and Professor of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences at Wayne State University. She received her PhD in Communication from Michigan State University in 1978. Her primary research interests are communication theory, health disparities, and physician-patient-family communication in oncology interactions. She is an author or co-author of over 125 articles and four books on these and related topics. She was the lead author on articles on physician-patient communication in Cancer (2007), Journal of Clinical Oncology (2008) and a chapter in the volume, The Handbook of Communication in Cancer and Palliative Care.
Steven A. Arthur received his MSc from the University of Kentucky in 2003. He is currently a doctoral candidate at Purdue University. His research interests include stereotyping and prejudice, self-regulation of prejudicial responding, and factors that influence interracial interactions.
Caroline Bennett-AbuAyyash is a PhD student in Social Psychology at The University of Western Ontario, Canada. She holds a BA in Public Administration and Political Science from the American University of Beirut, and a MSc. in Psychology from The University of Western Ontario. She is interested in a variety of issues within the context of intergroup relations, including the role of prejudice in the discounting of immigrants’ skills, the functions of group membership, and individual differences in the perception of difference as threat.
Arthur Paul Brief is the David S. Eccles Chair in Business Ethics and Presidential Professor at the University of Utah. His research focuses on the moral dimensions of organizational life (e.g., ethical decision-making, race relations, and worker well-being). In addition to numerous journal articles, Art is author of several books. Art is a past editor of the Academy of Management Review, and now co-edits Research in Organizational Behavior and the Academy of Management Annals. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Management, American Psychological Society, and the American Psychological Association.[Page xi]
Oliver Christ is a Senior Lecturer in Psychological Methods at the Department of Psychology at Philipps-University Marburg, Germany. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from Philipps-University Marburg in 2005. His research interests are in intergroup relations and social identity processes in organizations.
Adrienne Colella is a Professor and Freeman Chair in the Freeman School of Business at Tulane University. She received her PhD in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the Ohio State University. She is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) and the American Psychological Association. Professor Colella's research focuses on persons with disabilities and workplace discrimination. Her research appears in management, psychology, and rehabilitation journals. She is co-editor of a SIOP Frontiers Series book on the psychology of workplace discrimination and a co-author on an organizational behavior textbook. Professor Colella serves on the editorial boards of numerous journals.
Donyell Coleman is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Communication and Behavioral Oncology Program at Karmanos Cancer Institute. She is funded by a diversity award from the National cancer Institute. She received her PhD in Developmental Psychology from Wayne State University in 2006. Her primary research interests are cancer health disparities and barriers to help-seeking and service use by minority cancer patients. She is a co-author of a review of health disparities that appeared in the first issue of Social Issues and Policy Review (2008) and a chapter on evolutionary perspectives on human development, which appeared in the volume Further Thoughts on Adolescence (2006).
Lucian Gideon Conway, III received his PhD from the University of British Columbia in 2001 and is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Montana. His primary research interests lie in political and social psychology; he is the author of over two dozen articles, commentaries, and book chapters in these areas. In particular, his interests revolve around (1) how shared cultural beliefs emerge, persist, and have influence, and (2) the causes of complex (as opposed to simple) thinking and the subsequent consequences on decision-making in political and social arenas.
Joshua Correll joined the faculty of the University of Chicago in 2005. He received his PhD from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MA from the University of Waterloo. Generally, his work involves intergroup relations, stereotyping, and prejudice. His primary line of research uses a videogame simulation of a police encounter to examine bias in shoot/don't-shoot decisions.
Richard J. Crisp is Professor of Psychology at the University of Kent. He did his undergraduate degree at the University of Oxford and his PhD at Cardiff University. He has published over 70 articles and chapters on prejudice, social categorization, identity and intergroup contact. He has previously edited (with Miles Hewstone) a volume on Multiple Social Categorization and authored (with Rhiannon Turner) a textbook, Essential Social Psychology. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, and past winner of the British Psychological Society's Spearman Medal. In 2009 he was elected an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences.
Jennifer Crocker is Claude M. Steele Collegiate Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, and Research Professor at the Institute for Social Research. She received her PhD from Harvard University in 1979, and previously served on the faculties of Northwestern University and SUNY at Buffalo. Author of over 100 articles and chapters, she received the Gordon Allport [Page xii]Intergroup Relations Prize. She is currently President of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and was President of the International Society for Self and Identity, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and was Chair of the Executive Committee for the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. In July, 2010 she will become an Ohio Eminent Scholar at the Ohio State University.
Faye Crosby is a scholar, writer, consultant, and social activist. She received her PhD in 1976. Since 1997, Crosby has been Professor of Psychology at University of California, Santa Cruz. Previous faculty appointments included Rhode Island College, Yale University, The Kellogg School of Management, and Smith College. Crosby has authored or co-authored five books and has edited or co-edited another 10 volumes. Her articles and chapters number over 150. Most of her work concerns sex and race discrimination and focuses on remedies. She is the recipient of numerous awards. She is the founder of Nag's Heart, an organization whose mission is the replenishment of the feminist spirit.
Rafaela Dancygier is Assistant Professor of Politics and Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. She has been on the faculty at Princeton since 2007 and received her PhD from Yale University in the same year. Dr. Dancygier's research and publications have focused on the domestic consequences of international immigration, the political incorporation of immigrants, and the determinants of ethnic conflict.
Stéphanie Demoulin is currently Professor at the Catholic University of Louvain where she received her PhD in 2002. Dr. Demoulin's research interests are on infra-humanization, intergroup relations, intergroup emotions, intergroup misunderstandings, and negotiations. Recently, she has developed a new line of research in which she looks at intergroup negotiations and the processes that impact negotiations when negotiator partners do not share the same social categorization. She is a member of a number of different psychological associations including the European Association of Social Psychology, and she is a faculty member of the International Graduate College on ‘Conflict and Cooperation between Social Groups’. Recently, she has co-edited a book on Intergroup Misunderstandings.
Amanda Diekman is Associate Professor of Psychology at Miami University. She joined the faculty after serving as a Visiting Assistant Professor at Purdue University and completing her doctoral work at Northwestern University. Her research interests include stereotyping and prejudice, gender, and social change. She is currently serving as an Associate Editor for Basic and Applied Social Psychology.
Julie Dimmitt completed her Honors BA in Psychology at University of California, Santa Cruz and is currently a Pre-Doctoral scholar at Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, Palo Alto University. Her major area of interest includes the prevention and treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and underlying resilience and vulnerability factors associated with PTSD symptomatology. Her professional background includes writing, teaching, and social advocacy for minority youth. She is the recipient of the UC Santa Cruz Undergraduate Research Award in Psychology, UC Santa Cruz Campus Merit and Sage Scholarships, and USA Funds Scholarship.
John F. Dovidio is currently Professor of Psychology at Yale University. Before that, he was a professor at the University of Connecticut and at Colgate University, where he also was Provost and Dean of the Faculty. Dr. Dovidio has served as Editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology — Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. He is currently Co-Editor of Social Issues and[Page xiii]Policy Review. Dr. Dovidio has been President of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), President of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP), and Chair of the Executive Committee of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology (SESP). His research interests are in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination; social power and nonverbal communication; and altruism and helping.
John Duckitt is Professor of Psychology at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, where he has been on the faculty since 1995. He received his PhD from the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa in 1990. His major area of interest is the study of prejudice and intergroup hostility and he has contributed many articles on this topic. Other research interests include the study of group identification and political ideology. He is author of The Social Psychology of Prejudice (Praeger, 1992/1994) and co-editor (with Stanley Renshon) of Political Psychology: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Foundations (New York University Press/Macmillan, 2000).
Alice Eagly is Professor of Psychology, James Padilla Chair of Arts and Sciences, and Faculty Fellow in the Institute for Policy Research, all at Northwestern University. She has served as the Chair of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. Dr. Eagly has also held faculty positions at Michigan State University, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and Purdue University. Her research and writing pertain to the study of gender, attitudes, prejudice, cultural stereotypes, and leadership. She is the author of numerous journal articles and three books, Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social Role Interpretation (1987), (with Shelly Chaiken) The Psychology of Attitudes (1993), (with Linda Carli), Through the Labyrinth: The Truth About How Women Become Leaders (2007).
Naomi Ellemers is Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at Leiden University. After completing her studies at the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Groningen, where she obtained her PhD, she was Assistant Professor and Associate Professor at the Free University of Amsterdam. Her research addresses a range of topics in group processes and intergroup relations, and includes experimental studies as well as more applied research in organizations. She has co-edited several books, for instance on stereotyping, on social identity theory, and on social identity processes in organizations. In 2008 she received the Kurt Lewin Award for her research contribution to social psychology, from the European Association of Social Psychology.
Victoria M. Esses received her PhD from the University of Toronto and is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Centre for Research on Migration and Ethnic Relations at The University of Western Ontario, Canada. Her research examines prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup relations, with a particular interest in issues surrounding immigration and cultural diversity. Her work has covered such topics as the role of perceived competition and threat in determining attitudes toward immigrants and immigration; the dehumanization of refugees; the framing of national identity and public attitudes toward immigration and cultural diversity; and the role of ethnic and religious prejudice in immigrant skills discounting. She is co-editor of Social Issues and Policy Review, a new journal of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
Susan T. Fiske is Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorates, Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands). She investigates cognitive stereotypes and emotional prejudices at cultural, interpersonal, and neural levels, with Russell Sage Foundation support. The Supreme Court cited her gender-bias testimony, and she testified for President Clinton's [Page xiv]Race Initiative. Editor of Annual Review of Psychology and Handbook of Social Psychology, she wrote Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology and Social Cognition; From Brains to Culture. She recently won the Association for Psychological Science's William James Award and a Fellowship in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Sarah McQueary Flynn is currently a fourth year graduate student at the University of Kentucky working toward her PhD in Experimental Social Psychology. She completed her MSc under the direction of Dr. Suzanne Segerstrom, and she currently works as a research assistant in the University of Kentucky College of Medicine Department of Behavioral Sciences. Her primary research interests include social emotions and their link to physiological outcomes.
Samuel L. Gaertner (BA, 1964, Brooklyn College, PhD, 1970; The City University of New York: Graduate Center) is Professor of Psychology at the University of Delaware. His research interests involve intergroup relations with a focus on understanding and reducing prejudice, discrimination and racism. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Professor Gaertner's research has been supported by grants from the Office of Naval Research, the National Institutes of Mental Health and currently, the National Science Foundation. Together with John Dovidio, he has shared the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize in 1985 and 1998, and in 2004, the Kurt Lewin Memorial Award (a career award) from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Division 9 of the American Psychological Association.
Julie A. Garcia is Assistant Professor in the Psychology and Child Development Department at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. She began her faculty position in the Fall of 2007 after completing her PhD in Social Psychology from The University of Michigan in 2005 and a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship at Stanford University in 2007. Her research interests include: stigma, identity negotiation, intergroup relationships, and self-esteem.
Peter Glick (PhD in Psychology from the University of Minnesota) is the Henry Merritt Wriston Professor in the Social Sciences and Professor of Psychology at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. His research focuses on ambivalent prejudices toward women and minority groups. Dr. Glick is a fellow of (among others) the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science. He serves on the editorial boards of four professional journals and the governing councils for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology.
Seth K. Goldman is a PhD candidate at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include media effects, public opinion, and political communication, especially as they relate to stereotyping and prejudice.
Donald P. Green is Professor of Political Science and Psychology at Yale University, where he has taught since receiving his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1988. His books and articles span a wide array of topics: prejudice, rationality, political campaigns, social identities, voting behavior, experimental design, and multi-method measurement. Dr. Green recently co-authored with Elizabeth Levy Paluck an article titled ‘Prejudice reduction: What works? A Review and Assessment of Research and Practice,’ which appeared in the 2009 Annual Review of Psychology.[Page xv]
Geoffrey Haddock is Reader in Social Psychology at Cardiff University, where he has been a faculty member since 2001. He received his PhD from the University of Waterloo in 1995. His major area of interest is the study of attitudes and attitude change, and he has contributed over 50 articles and chapters on this topic. He is co-author of The Psychology of Attitudes and Attitude Change, with Greg Maio.
Michelle R. (Mikki) Hebl is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Rice University. She has been on the Rice faculty since 1998, after receiving her PhD and teaching for one year at Dartmouth College. Her major area of interest is the study of diversity and discrimination. She has contributed over 70 articles and chapters on this topic, many of which pertain to sexual orientation.
Wilhelm Heitmeyer is professor for socialization and director of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and Violence at the University of Bielefeld, Germany. His major areas of interest are violence, right-wing extremism, group-focused enmity, and social disintegration. He is editor or managing editor of several book series and editor (in chief) of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence.
P. J. Henry is Associate Professor of Psychology at New York University — Abu Dhabi, where he has been on the faculty since 2009. He received his PhD from UCLA in 2001. His major area of interest is the study of prejudice and stigma, including most recently his theory of low-status compensation. He has held research and teaching appointments nationally and internationally, including at the American University of Beirut (Lebanon), Yale University, UCSB, DePaul University, and the University of Bielefeld (Germany) where he was awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship.
Miles Hewstone completed his BSc at the University of Bristol, followed by his D Phil at Oxford University, his Habilitation, at the Univesity of Tuebingen, and his DSc at the University of Oxford. He is currently Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of New College, and his main research interests are in intergroup contact and the reduction of intergroup conflict. He is a recipient of the British Psychological Society's Spearman Medal, and Presidents’ Award for Distinguished Research Contributions, the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology's Kurt Lewin Award, and the Gordon Allport Prize for Intergroup Relations from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. He is a Fellow and outgoing Vice-President (Social Sciences) of the British Academy.
Michael Hogg received his PhD from Bristol University. He is currently Professor of Social Psychology at Claremont Graduate University, and retains Honorary Professorships at the Universities of Kent and Queensland. He is a Fellow of SPSSI, SPSP, WPA and the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. His work is closely associated with the development of social identity theory, on which he has published 260 books, chapters and articles. An associate editor of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, he is founding co-editor with Dominic Abrams of the journal Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, and senior consultant editor for the Sage Social Psychology Program. Current research foci include leadership, deviance, uncertainty reduction, extremism, and subgroup relations.
Melissa A. Houlette (BA, 1996, Miami University; PhD, 2003, University of Delaware) is an Assistant Professor of Psychology and Organizational Leadership at the College of Mount St. Joseph in Cincinnati, Ohio, holding a joint appointment in Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Business Administration. Her research interests include the causes and [Page xvi]consequences of intergroup bias, the development of means to improve relations between groups, and decision making and information sharing in groups that are functionally and demographically diverse.
Lynne Jackson (PhD University of Western Ontario) is Associate Professor at King's University College at The University of Western Ontario, Canada. She conducts research related to prejudice, discrimination, and intergroup relations. Particular areas of focus include prejudice between religious groups and connections between prejudice and environmental decision making. She also has a research interest in human-animal relations.
Amanda Johnston is an advanced doctoral student of psychology at Miami University. Her research interests include gender, goal pursuit, social change, and social justice. Her teaching interests include Social Psychology, Statistics, and Psychology of Women.
Charles M. Judd is College Professor of Distinction at the University of Colorado. He received his PhD from Columbia University. His research interests include social cognition, attitudes, and research methods and data analysis. He is the editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition.
Rachel W. Kallen is currently an Assistant Professor in the Psychology department at University of Cincinnati. She received her PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Connecticut in 2005, and her overall research centers around understanding consequences of prejudice and intergroup relations primarily from the target's perspective.
Kerry Kawakami (MA, 1989, University of Amsterdam, PhD, 1995, University of Toronto) is an Associate Professor of Psychology at York University. Her research examines strategies to reduce implicit prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination using social cognitive methodologies. She is currently on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Social Psychology and Social Psychological and Personality Science. Professor Kawakami's research has been supported by grants from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Canadian Foundation for Innovation Fund (CFI), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). She has received the Premiers Research Excellence Award and, together with John Dovidio, the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize in 2000 from Division 9 of the American Psychological Association.
Megan Clark Kelly is a doctoral student at the University of Maryland. Her major areas of interest are social development and contextual factors related to intergroup bias. Other research interests include gender stereotyping, and social exclusion.
Melanie Killen is Professor of Human Development and Affiliate Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her PhD from the University of California at Berkeley in Developmental Psychology in 1985. Her major areas of interest include social cognitive development, developmental intergroup attitudes, social reasoning about exclusion, and moral judgments. She was the Editor of the Handbook of Moral Development (2006) with Judith Smetana, and the Co-Editor of Intergroup Attitudes and Relations from Childhood to Adulthood (2008) with Sheri Levy (Editor), along with four other edited volumes. She is Associate Editor of Child Development, and she serves on the Society for Research in Child Development Governing Council. She is the Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Training Program in Social Development at the University of Maryland, and the Associate Director for the Center for Children, Relationships, and Culture. [Page xvii]Her research is funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (NICHD).
Eden King is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at George Mason University. She has been on the George Mason faculty since 2006, after receiving her PhD from Rice University. She is interested in issues pertaining to discrimination and its remediation. In her short time in academia, she has already amassed more than 35 publications.
Charlie Law is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Penn State — Schuylkill. He has been on the faculty since 2008, after receiving his PhD from Rice University. He is interested in studying discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation but is also more generally interested in diversity issues. He is currently co-chair of SIOP's LGBT ad hoc committee and faculty sponsor of the Penn State — Schuylkill Psychology Club.
Jacques-Philippe Leyens is Professor emeritus of the Catholic University of Louvain (UCL) at Louvain-la-Neuve. He got his PhD in 1969 at UCL before spending two years as Research Associate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has been successively interested in media violence, implicit theories of personality, person perception, stereotyping, racism and he is continuing research on infra-humanization. He has been president of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, and received its greatest award: the Tajfel Award. He has collaborated on articles and books in different languages, most recently co-editing Intergroup Misunderstandings with Stéphanie Demoulin and John Dovidio.
Diane M. Mackie became Professor of Psychology and Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara, after receiving a BA from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and a MA and PhD in Social Psychology from Princeton University. Her research interests span evaluation, emotion, social influence, and intergroup relations. In addition to publishing articles, chapters, and two edited volumes on these topics, she is the co-author (with Eliot Smith) of Social Psychology, an introductory textbook.
C. Neil Macrae completed his BSc, PhD and DSc at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Having moved around a bit, he returned to Scotland in 2005 and is Professor of Social Cognition at the University of Aberdeen. He has been fortunate to receive several career awards (BPS Spearman Medal, APA Early Career Award, EAESP Jaspars Award, SESP Career Trajectory Award, EAESP Kurt Lewin Award, Royal Society-Wolfson Fellowship) and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE). His interests lie in social cognition and social cognitive neuroscience.
Gregory R. Maio is a Professor of Social Psychology at Cardiff University, where he has been a faculty member since 1997. He received his PhD from the University of Western Ontario in 1997 and has published widely on the topics of values, attitudes, and social cognition. He is co-author (with Geoff Haddock) of The Psychology of Attitudes and Attitude Change.
Brenda Major is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received her PhD in Social Psychology from Purdue University in 1978 and taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 1978 to 1995 before joining the faculty at UCSB. She has published more than 100 articles in refereed journals and edited books, and co-edited the book The Psychology of Legitimacy. She was awarded the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues in 1986, in 1988, and received Honorable Mention in 2002. She has been an Associate Editor of [Page xviii]Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Her research centers on psychological resilience — how people cope with, adapt to, and overcome adverse life circumstances. Current research interests include the psychology of stigma and prejudice, self and social identity, and legitimacy. Her work has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health.
Antony S. R. Manstead is Professor of Psychology at Cardiff University, where he has been a faculty member since 2004. He received his DPhil. from the University of Sussex in 1978. His research focuses on emotion, attitudes, and social identity. He is co-author (with Brian Parkinson and Agneta Fischer) of Emotion in Social Relations: Cultural, Group, and Interpersonal Processes.
Malia Mason is an Assistant Professor of Management at Columbia University. She received her PhD from Dartmouth University in 2005 and then did a Post Doctoral Fellow for two years before joining the faculty in 2007. Her major area of interest is the study of social cognition. Other research interests include social perception, perspective taking and attention.
Margo J. Monteith is a Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. She received her PhD in 1991 from the University of Wisconsin, and she was a faculty member at Texas Tech University (two years) and the University of Kentucky (12 years) prior to joining the Purdue faculty in 2006. Her major area of interest is the study of stereotyping and prejudice, particularly mechanisms and processes involved in bias reduction. She has contributed several dozen articles and book chapters on this topic, and her research has been funded primarily by the National Institute of Mental Health.
Diana C. Mutz is the Samuel A. Stouffer Professor of Political Science and Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her PhD from Stanford University in 1988. Her major areas of interest are political psychology and the study of communication's effects on public opinion. She has contributed many journal articles on this topic as well as two award-winning books, Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative versus Participatory Democracy (Cambridge University Press, 2006) and Impersonal Influence (Cambridge University Press, 1998). Mutz served as co-PI of Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences (TESS) and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Heather Orom is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Behavior at the University of Buffalo. Prior to this appointment she was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Wayne State University's Institute of Gerontology and Karmanos Cancer Institute. She received her PhD in Social and Personality Psychology at University of Illinois Chicago in 2006. Her primary research interests are improving prevention and screening among families at increased risk for certain diseases. She is the lead author of a 2009 article in Psycho-Oncology on personality correlates of prostate cancer treatment decisions and a 2008 article in Cancer on health risks in immigrant populations.
Bernadette Park is Professor of Psychology at the University of Colorado. She has been on the faculty at Colorado since receiving her PhD from Northwestern University in 1985. Her major area of interest is the study of stereotyping and prejudice, including work on race bias and gender stereotypes. She also has interests in the study of person perception and has published extensively in these areas.
K. Michelle Peavy received her doctorate in clinical psychology at The University of Montana. Her primary interests are in substance abuse, attitudes of professionals in the field of substance [Page xix]abuse, and stigmatized groups within the substance abusing population. Her research includes examination of substance abuse treatment providers’ explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities, and she is currently examining motivation to enter treatment in a group of incarcerated substance abusers. She is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington.
Louis A. Penner is a Senior Scientist in Communication and Behavioral Oncology program at Karmanos Cancer Institute and Professor Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences at Wayne State University. He also is a Research Associate in the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from Michigan State University in 1969. His major research interests are prosocial behavior and health disparities. He is the author or co-author of over 100 articles and chapters, and 8 books on these and related topics. He was the lead author on a 2005 article in the Annual Review of Psychology on prosocial behavior and a 2008 article in Social Issues and Policy Review on causes of health disparities.
Thomas F. Pettigrew is Research Professor of Social Psychology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A Harvard PhD, he also taught at Harvard (1957–1980), and Amsterdam (1986–1991). He was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study and has conducted intergroup research throughout the world. He was president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and has received the Society's Kurt Lewin Award, twice its Gordon Allport Intergroup Research Award, the American Sociological Association's Spivack Award, the Society for Experimental Social Psychology's Distinguished Scientist Award, the International Academy for Intercultural Research's Lifetime Achievement Award, the University of California's Panunzio Award and the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence's Ralph White Lifetime Achievement Award.
Susanne Quadflieg completed her PhD at the University of Aberdeen (Scotland) in 2009. She studied psychology at Dartmouth College (USA) and at the University of Jena (Germany). Her major area of interest is the study of person perception and construal, as reflected in several articles on the topic. Other research interests include the role of embodiment in social cognition and self-referential processing.
Diane M. Quinn is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Connecticut. She has been on the faculty since receiving her PhD from the University of Michigan in 1999. Her major area of research includes examining how living with visible and concealable stigmatized identities affect behavioral, psychological, and health outcomes.
Ana Rasquiza graduated from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 2008 with a BA in legal studies. In her studies, Ana focused on the policy implications of race, gender and sexuality. She currently works at Preschool California, a nonprofit advocacy organization working to increase access to high-quality preschool for all of California's children, starting with those who need it most. She lives in Oakland, CA.
Cameron B. Richardson is a doctoral student at the University of Maryland. His major area of interest is in the field of moral psychology, in particular, the study of the contextual and situational factors that to contribute to social and moral reasoning. Other research interests include the study of intergroup relations, stereotyping, and social exclusion.[Page xx]
Jennifer A. Richeson is an Associate Professor of Psychology and African American Studies and Faculty Fellow at the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University. She earned a PhD in Social Psychology from Harvard University in 2000 then spent five years on the faculty in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Dartmouth College prior to moving to Northwestern in 2005. She is currently involved in several areas of research that aim to contribute to a better understanding of intergroup relations, as well as to elucidate pitfalls in current approaches to prejudice reduction and ‘managing’ diversity. Her work has been published in various scholarly journals, including Psychological Science, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Nature Neuroscience, and the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
Laurie A. Rudman (PhD in Psychology from the University of Minnesota) is a Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Her research interests focus on stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination, especially with respect to how they deter gender and racial equality. The author of over 50 peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Rudman is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. She serves on the Advisory Council for the National Science Foundation and is a council member of the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences.
Ann Marie Russell, a PhD candidate in Princeton's Social Psychology and Social Policy program, investigates social psychological reactions to stigmatized social classes. Her primary research concerns the role of perceived threat to symbolic values in people's extreme and ambivalent reactions to economically disadvantaged individuals. Another research program investigates differences in welfare policy preferences as a function of the perceived deservingness of the beneficiary group. A final line of research explores how social class memberships shape psychological orientations, particularly goals and decision-making. Russell's research is supported by a National Science Foundation graduate research fellowship, the Russell Sage Foundation, and a Society for Personality and Social Psychology Diversity Fund award.
Mark Schaller is Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. His research focuses on social cognition in general, and the psychology of stereotypes and prejudices in particular. In pursuing these research topics, he also explores broader questions about the influence of human evolutionary history on psychological processes, and about the impact of psychological processes on human culture. Among his publications are edited books on the Social Psychology of Prejudice, Evolution and Social Psychology, and The Psychological Foundations of Culture.
Kristina R. Schmukler is currently a PhD candidate in Social Psychology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is a scholar, teacher, researcher, and advocate interested in many social-justice issues including, economic justice, and the advancement of women and people of color in the sciences. Kristina graduated with her bachelors degree from Humboldt State University with an award for excellence in the natural sciences as well as a Sally Casanova Pre-Doctoral Scholar. Her latest publication may be read in Critical Race Realism: Intersections of Psychology, Race and Law, edited by Gregory S. Parks, Shayne Jones, and W. Jonathan Cardi, Chapter 4 ‘Affirmative Action: Images and Realities’.
J. Nicole Shelton is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Princeton University. She earned a PhD in Psychology in 1998 from the University of Virginia and after a two-year post-doctoral [Page xxi]fellowship at the University of Michigan, joined the Princeton faculty in 2000. Her primary research focuses on how Whites and ethnic minorities navigate issues of prejudice in interracial interactions. Specifically, she is interested in how Whites’ concerns with appearing prejudiced and ethnic minorities’ concerns with being the target of prejudice influence affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes during interracial interactions. Her work has been published in various scholarly journals, including Psychological Science, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
Alexis Nicole Smith received her PhD in Organizational Behavior from Tulane University's Freeman School of Business and received her BA in Psychology from Rice University. Lex's focal areas of research are status, power and bias in and around organizations. She also does research on the quality and utility of workplace health and safety interventions. Her work appears in journals and edited books in the fields of management, psychology, and workplace safety. In addition, Lex is a member of and has presented research at the Academy of Management, the Southern Management Association, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Eliot R. Smith is Chancellor's Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington, where he moved in 2003 after serving on the faculty at Purdue University. He holds A.B. and PhD degrees from Harvard University. Major research interests include socially situated cognition and the role of emotion in prejudice and intergroup behavior. With Diane Mackie he co-edited From Prejudice to Intergroup Emotions (2002, Psychology Press).
Leanne Son Hing is a Professor of Psychology Department at the University of Guelph. She has been at Guelph since she received her PhD from the University of Waterloo in 2000. She is interested in the disparities or inequalities that exist between individuals and groups in terms of status, power, and outcomes. Her lines of research converge on this issue (e.g., prejudice, discrimination, meritocracy, incompetence stereotypes, and inequality in the workplace). She is a Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Russell Spears is Professor of Psychology at Cardiff University, where he has been a faculty member since 2003. He received a PhD from Exeter in 1985. His research interests are in social identity and intergroup relations (and the role of group-based emotions in these phenomena). He co-authored/co-edited The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life, and Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content (both Blackwell).
Steven J. Spencer is Professor of Psychology at the University of Waterloo. He has been on the faculty since 1997. He received his PhD from the University of Michigan in 1993. His major area of interest is the study of stereotyping and prejudice, and he has contributed several dozen articles on this topic. Other research interests include the self and consciousness. He is the co-editor of three books and an author of a social psychology text book.
Nicole Tausch obtained her D. Phil at the University of Oxford in 2006. She is currently a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at Cardiff University where she is working on a project examining predictors of support for terrorism. Her research interests lie broadly in the areas of social identity, intergroup relations, prejudice, and collective action. She has published work on intergroup contact, group-based threat, and trait attribution in journals such as Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, British Journal of Social Psychology, and Political Psychology.[Page xxii]
Sarah S. M. Townsend is a doctoral student in social psychology at the University of California Santa Barbara. Her research interests primarily relate to intergroup relations, with a focus on prejudice and discrimination. Her current work examines the moderating role that both ideological beliefs and chronic perceptions of discrimination play in psychological and physiological reactions to prejudice. Other research interests include the cultural patterning of psychological processes and the experience of mixed race individuals in the United States.
Willie Underwood III is an Assistant Professor of Urologic Oncology at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo New York. Previously, he was on the faculty at the University of Michigan and Wayne Sate University Medical Schools. He received his MD from the Syracuse, Upstate Medical University in 1994 and completed his residency at the University of Connecticut Health Center. His primary research interest is health disparities in the treatment of genitourinary cancers. He has published over 30 articles on this topic, including a recent review article on treatment in the Canadian Journal of Urology (2009) and a 2006 article on disparities in the treatment of bladder cancer in the Journal of Urology.
Colette van Laar is on the faculty in social and organizational psychology at Leiden University. She attended the University of California, Los Angeles as a Fulbright Scholar to obtain a PhD in Social Psychology. She was a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation and a member of the governing council of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Her research focuses on intergroup relations, contact and the consequences of stigma for cognition, affect, and motivation in members of low status or disadvantaged groups.
Ulrich Wagner is Professor of Social Psychology at the Department of Psychology and the Center for Conflict Studies at Philipps-University Marburg, Germany. He has received his PhD from The University of Bochum in 1982. His major areas of interest are the studies of intergroup relations and intergroup conflict, and he has contributed several dozen articles on this topic. Other research interests include the prevention of prejudice and intergroup violence as well as the evaluation of intervention programs. He is co-editor of the recent issue of The Journal of Social Issues on Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination in Europe (2008).
Bernd Wittenbrink is Professor of Behavioral Science at the University of Chicago in the Booth School of Business. He received his PhD from the University of Michigan. His research concerns the role stereotypes and group attitudes play in social judgment and behavior. His work has been published in, among others, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, and the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Stephen C. Wright is Professor and Canada Research Chair in Social Psychology at Simon Fraser University. He received his PhD from McGill University, and was a faculty member in the Psychology Department at University of California, Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. His research focuses broadly on intergroup relations, with specific interests in: the consequences of membership in stigmatized groups, antecedent and barriers to collective action, prejudice and its reduction, and issues of minority languages and cultures. His work has been published widely in scholarly volumes and major social, educational, and cross-cultural psychology journals.
Vincent Yzerbyt took his PhD from the Université Catholique de Louvain where he is now Professor of Psychology. His major area of interest is the study of stereotyping and intergroup relations, especially issues of stereotype formation and change, group-based emotions, and group perception. Other interests include methods and statistics. A former president of the European Association of Social Psychology, he is the founding editor of Social Psychological and[Page xxiii]Personality Science, co-author of Stereotypes and Social Cognition (with Leyens and Schadron) and co-editor of Stereotypes as Explanations (with McGarty and Spears) and The Psychology of Group Perception (with Judd and Corneille). He is the recipient of the 2007 Career Trajectory Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and received the 2008 Kurt Lewin Award from the European Association of Social Psychology.
Mark Zanna is a University Professor and Chair at the University of Waterloo. He received his PhD from Yale University. His area of research is the psychology of attitudes. Currently, he is studying prejudice at both the explicit and implicit levels. A former President of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, he edits Advances in Experimental Social Psychology and the Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology. A Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, he is the recipient of the Distinguished Scientist Awards from the Canadian Psychological Association, SPSP, SESP, and SPSSI.
This is a sizable volume. It contains 36 chapters representing the contributions of 83 different authors and co-authors, who have made significant contributions to the study of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination.
This volume is truly a handbook, in the sense of a volume that sets down a marker in the literature. The goals of each chapter and of the chapters collectively are to provide a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of the state of theory and research on prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. This is not the typical edited volume in which each contributor presents his or her own theory and latest research. Rather, the authors present succinct, consistently-edited, comprehensive and impartial reviews of specific topics, describing the current state of knowledge and identifying the most productive new directions for future research. The volume has five main sections, with chapters that (a) provide a historical and methodological overview; (b) examine basic processes and causes of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination; (c) consider specific types of biases (e.g., sexism, racism, anti-immigration attitudes) and how they are expressed; (d) discuss the social impact of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination; and (e) recommend ways to combat intergroup bias. Aconcluding chapter by the senior academic in the field offers a broad, integrative perspective on the topics of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination.
This volume is designed with several audiences in mind. It is accessible to a general lay audience, and policy makers will find a rich array of the multiple contributions of social psychology to the challenges posed to contemporary societies by issues concerning intergroup relations. It is also a crucial resource for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals who are interested in the areas of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. It generally represents a social psychological orientation, but the volume should also appeal to students and scholars in sociology, political science, and education, as well as academics and practitioners interested in anti-bias education and prejudice reduction techniques and strategies.
This volume is large because it has to be: it tackles complex issues with broad applications and implications. Social biases present difficult theoretical and practical challenges for theory and research. The problems addressed here are not new and remain fundamental to the human experience. Centuries before psychology existed as a separate field, the prevalence of prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination, and intergroup conflict led philosophers to ponder the inherent nature of humans and the role of society in shaping good and evil. These topics have been at the core of work in both psychology and sociology from the inception of these disciplines. The theorists and researchers who made landmark early contributions to the study of prejudice — including Gordon Allport, Muzafer Sherif, and Henri Tajfel — are among the most prominent social psychologists in the field; their names remain readily recognizable to any student of psychology. These pioneers were followed by thousands of researchers who created a substantial empirical database upon which this volume rests. There are almost 2,500 references cited across [Page xxv]the chapters in this book. The field not only ‘stands on the shoulders of giants’ but also on mountains of data, which are reviewed and systematized here.
This book not only reviews the current state of knowledge about prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination, but also identifies what remains to be discovered. Each chapter looks forward as well as backward. The recurrence of genocide across history reminds us all of the evil of intergroup bias. However, the daily micro events of intergroup aggression and other forms of subtle discrimination that people suffer also take a significant human toll and violate, in less blatant ways, fundamental principles of fairness, justice, and human dignity. Thus, this volume attempts to guide the field toward new insights and research. It is our hope that it will not only result in conceptual advancements but also effective interventions with the potential to foster more positive and productive intergroup relations, to the benefit of all.
We acknowledge the substantial amount of encouragement, assistance, and support that made this book possible. We are very grateful to Sage Publications; we particularly appreciate the patience, wisdom, and guidance of Michael Carmichael and Sophie Hine. We also acknowledge the various forms of support that each of us has received to assist us in our efforts for the volume: For Jack Dovidio, the support provided by the National Science Foundation (Grant #0613218) and the Spencer Foundation (Grant #200900193), as well as by the University of Connecticut and Yale University; for Miles Hewstone, a programme grant from the Leverhulme Trust; for Peter Glick, sabbatical support from Lawrence University; and for Victoria Esses, the support provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, as well as the University of Western Ontario.