• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

A definitive, authoritative and up-to-date resource for anyone interested in the theories, models and assessment methods used for understanding the many factes of Human personality and individual differences. Volume 1: Personality Theories and Models deals with the major theoretical models underlying personality instruments.

Culture: Ways of Thinking and Believing
Culture: Ways of thinking and believing

Numerous definitions of culture exist in the literature today, but there is a common thread on its definition that researchers across disciplines tend to agree upon. Culture has been defined as:

The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. (Hofstede, 2002: 9)

[S]hared meaning systems that provide the standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting among those who share a language, a historic period, and a geographic location. (Triandis, 1996: 207)

[A] meaning and information system shared by a group and transmitted across generations. (Matsumoto and Yoo, 2006: 234)

The above definitions by psychologists emphasize a set of shared beliefs, values, and social norms which can ...

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