The Handbook of Parenting brings together in a single volume much of the theoretical and empirical knowledge and aspects of professional activity within the broadly defined field of parenting. Contributions are presented from an internationally renowned group of scholars known for their work in a range of disciplines, including child and family psychology, education and family studies, providing an accessible map of the major debates in theory, research and practice in this important and exciting field. The material is presented comprehensively. It encompasses essential policy and professional issues in all the main areas of current concern from parenting in culturally divergent settings, to parenting children with special needs in areas of physical, mental, social and educational functioning, to looking at ways in which the wider community and technological advances may be able to provide parenting support. Published in a single-volume format, this handbook will prove an invaluable and essential resource. Academics, researchers, practitioners and advanced students in a host of disciplines will gain from its breadth, wealth of information and enormous insight into the principal issues related to parenting theory and practice in the 21st century. The distinctive contribution of this handbook is to present a vast body of research and other information in a manner that is usable by practitioners in a wide range of child and parental support activities.
Chapter 3: Parenting in Social and Economic Adversity
Parenting in Social and Economic Adversity
Most parents rear their children in what are, for their societies, ‘normal’ or ‘average’ circumstances. Some are better off and presumably give an advantage to their children. At the opposite end there are those who, for a variety of social, economic and personal reasons, suffer from disadvantages and adversities. We should expect that these adversities will be communicated by parents and reflected in what they do with their children.
This chapter briefly examines poverty in parents, and historical and current attempts to alleviate its effects on children. Adolescent parents, parents in prison and those with learning difficulties are then discussed as clear examples of ‘socially excluded parents’. The choice is not random, and studying specific ...