Handbook of Multicultural Measures


Glenn C. Gamst, Christopher T. H. Liang & Aghop Der-Karabetian

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    The present handbook provides a summary of some of the best multicultural instrumentation, theorizing, and research in the social, behavioral, and health-related fields. Based on our inclusion criteria, summarized in Chapter 1, this text offers a fairly comprehensive compendium of empirically supported multicultural instrumentation that spans the following measurement subject areas: psychometrics, cultural competence, racial identity and ethnic identity, acculturation, racism and prejudice, gender, sexual orientation, and disability.

    Our pedagogical goal was to place as many multicultural instrument summaries as we could create within one text. Of course, such “one-stop shopping” can often yield a double-edged sword; convenience must be tempered by the realization that any multicultural measurement compendium is but the beginning of a serious and thorough literature review. Therefore, we encourage readers to examine the citations covered in the instrument summaries and chapters found throughout this handbook. It should also be noted that we are not providing the actual multicultural instrument items. The interested investigator can find them in the instruments’ primary references or by contacting the primary authors themselves.

    We believe this handbook is suitable for a number of audiences. First, at the undergraduate level, students conducting their own original research or senior thesis should find this text a valuable resource. Second, graduate student master's thesis or doctoral dissertation research could also be informed by the multicultural overviews and instrument summaries provided herein. Third, multicultural researchers may find this text tobe an authoritative and convenient means of quickly differentiating among a variety of psychometrically sound and culturally valid measurement instruments. This handbook should also provide clinical practitioners with a useful starting point in their search for multicultural assessment devices they can use with diverse clients to inform clinical treatment. We also offer practitioners a multicultural framework and case illustration (the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process Model) to assist in the implementation of multicultural assessment in training and service delivery in counseling centers, community mental health centers, hospitals, and so forth.

    To the Reader

    This handbook assumes that you, the reader, have had at least one multicultural course at either the undergraduate or graduate level. Typically, these courses cover multicultural concepts such as racism, discrimination, acculturation, ethnic and racial identity, sexual identity, sex roles, and so on. What is typically not covered in any great detail is a review of multicultural concepts integrated within a measurement context. This handbook provides such an integration by offering the reader a psychometric overview; a conceptual framework (Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process) that helps the reader maneuver through this complex literature; a review of key concepts and major findings for each multicultural measurement domain covered; as well as detailed summary information about each instrument included in this handbook.

    As with any set of measurement instruments, caution should always be exercised in the use of these instruments to assist in clinical practice or to further our understanding of multicultural phenomena. Assessment clarity can be maximized when the practitioner or researcher is able to triangulate multiple multicultural measurement instruments during the assessment process.

    Multicultural measures were included based on our inclusion criteria that we summarize in Chapter 1. Measures that were included in our summaries should not necessarily be viewed as an endorsement or promotion of the measure. We encourage readers to use the concepts addressed in Chapter 2 as a foundation for making informed decisions in selecting measures summarized in this handbook. Conversely, measures that were excluded simply did not meet our inclusion criteria, were developed by means of rational or theoretical bases, or were inadvertently omitted and do not necessarily indicate a lack of suitability for multicultural assessment.

    Glenn C.GamstChristopher T. H.LiangAghopDer-KarabetianUniversity of La Verne


    We thank the many students each of us has had at the University of La Verne (in La Verne, CA). Your thoughtful questions, advice, experiences, and feedback have been absolutely invaluable. Special thanks go to four intrepid doctoral students in the Clinical-Community Psychology program at the University of La Verne: Michelle Alfaro, Rhona Harrison, Suzannia Holden, and Samantha Sharac, who devoted many hours capturing the articles, books, and measures that we subsequently summarized. Their collective positive spirit enabled us to finish this handbook.

    We thank Drs. Alvin Alvarez (San Francisco State University), Bryan Kim (University of Hawaii at Hilo), Katie McDonald (Portland State University), Andrew Smiler (Wake Forest University), Dawn Syzmanski (University of Tennessee), Rebecca Toporek (San Francisco State University), Shawn Utsey (Virginia Commonwealth University), and Susanna Gallor (University of New Hampshire) for taking the time to provide us with feedback and suggestions for the inclusion and/or exclusion of measures.

    We offer very special thanks for constructive feedback on several of the chapters by Joseph Ponterotto (Fordham University), Larry Meyers (California State University, Sacramento) and Rocio Rosales Meza (University of La Verne). Your diligence was most appreciated.

    We would also like to thank our friend and confidant, Kassie Graves, Acquisitions Editor at Sage Publications. Her support throughout all phases of this project is much appreciated.

    Lastly, we thank Angie Castillo, Administrative Assistant, Psychology Department, University of La Verne. Your patience, computer savvy, and gentle style have made us all much more productive, and we are sincerely in your debt.

    The authors and SAGE also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following reviewers: James W. Bartee (West Virginia University), Linda G. Castillo (Texas A&M University), Catherine Y. Chang (Georgia State University), Kyle K. Colling (Montana State University Billings), James M. Croteau (Western Michigan University), Paul Pedersen (Syracuse University), John E. Queener (The University of Akron), Carla J. Reyes (A Child's Place), Delores D. Walcott (Western Michigan University).

    List of Measures

    4.5.1 California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale (CBMCS) 38

    4.5.2 Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey—Counselor Edition—Revised (MAKSS-CE-R) 40

    4.5.3 Multicultural Mental Health Awareness Scale (MMHAS) 42

    4.5.4 Multicultural Counseling Competence and Training Survey—Revised (MCCTS-R) 44

    4.5.5 Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) 46

    4.5.6 Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) 48

    4.5.7 Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCA) 50

    4.6.1 Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory—Revised (CCCI-R) 52

    4.6.2 Multicultural Supervision Inventory (MSI) 54

    4.6.3 Multicultural Environmental Inventory—Revised (MEI-R) 56

    4.7.1 School Counselor Multicultural Self-Efficacy Scale (SCMES) 58

    4.7.2 Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale (CRTSE) 60

    4.7.3 Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale—Racial Diversity Form (MCSE-RD) 61

    4.8.1 Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS) 63

    4.8.2 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Working Alliance Self-Efficacy Scales (LGB-WASES) 65

    4.8.3 Gay Affirmative Practice Scale (GAP) 67

    4.8.4 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Counseling Self-Efficacy Inventory (LGB-CSI) 69

    4.9.1 Counseling Women Competencies Scale (CWCS) 71

    4.10.1 Consumer-Based Cultural Competency Inventory (C-BCCI) 73

    4.11.1 Multicultural Awareness-Knowledge-Skills Survey—Teachers Form (MAKSS-Form T) 75

    4.11.2 Multicultural Teaching Concerns Survey (MTCS) 77

    4.11.3 Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey (TMAS) 79

    4.11.4 Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs—Preliminary 2 (MCSA-P2) 81

    4.11.5 Multicultural School Psychology Counseling Competency Scale (MSPCCS) 82

    4.11.6 Culturally Responsive Teaching Outcome Expectancy Scale (CRTOE) 83

    4.12.1 Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) 84

    5.13.1 African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASC) 92

    5.13.2 Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI) 94

    5.13.3 Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) 96

    5.13.4 Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity—Teen (MIBI-T) 98

    5.13.5 Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS-A [Short Form], RIAS-B [Short Form], RIAS-L [Long Form]) 100

    5.13.6 Racial Identity Scale for Low-Income African Americans (RISL) 103

    5.14.1 Cuban Behavioral Identity Questionnaire (CBIQ) 105

    5.14.2 Ethnic Consciousness Among Mexican-Origin Populations (ECAMOP) 107

    5.14.3 Multidimensional Measure of Cultural Identity Scale for Latinos (MMCISL) 109

    5.14.4 Strength of Ethnic Identity (SEI) 112

    5.15.1 East Asian Ethnic Identity Scale (EAEIS) 113

    5.15.2 Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) 115

    5.15.3 Internal-External Identity Measure (Int-Ext Id) 117

    5.15.4 Taiwanese Ethnic Identity Scale (TEIS) 119

    5.16.1 Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale—Preliminary (ORAS-P) 121

    5.16.2 White Racial Consciousness Development—Revised (WRCDS-R) 124

    5.16.3 White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (WRAIS) 126

    5.17.1 Italian Canadian Ethnic Identity (ICEI) 128

    5.17.2 Jewish-American Identity Scale (JAIS) 130

    5.17.3 Male Arabic Ethnic Identity Measure (MAEIM) 132

    5.17.4 Measure of Enculturation for Native American Youth (MENAY) 134

    5.17.5 Multiracial Identity Integration Scale (MII Scale) 136

    5.18.1 Ethnic Group Membership Questionnaire (EGMQ) 138

    5.18.2 Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) 140

    5.18.3 Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) 143

    5.18.4 Self-Identity Inventory (SII) 146

    5.18.5 Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure—Revised (MEIM-R) 149

    6.10.1 African American Acculturation Scale—Revised (AAAS-R) 158

    6.10.2 African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS) 160

    6.10.3 Two-Dimensional Black Acculturation Scale (T-DBAS) 162

    6.10.4 Africentrism Scale (AS) 164

    6.11.1 Asian American Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AAMAS) 166

    6.11.2 Asian Values Scale—Revised (AVS-R) 169

    6.11.3 Asian American Values Scale—Multidimensional (AAVS-M) 171

    6.11.4 Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) 173

    6.11.5 European American Values Scale for Asian Americans—Revised (EAVS-AA-R) 175

    6.11.6 Acculturation Scale for Southeast Asians (ASSA) 177

    6.11.7 Acculturation Scale for Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA) 179

    6.11.8 Khmer Acculturation Scale (KAS) 181

    6.11.9 Cultural Values Conflict Scale for South Asian Women (CVCS) 183

    6.11.10 A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA) 185

    6.11.11 General Ethnicity Questionnaire (GEQ) 187

    6.11.12 Brief Acculturation Scale (BAS-J) 189

    6.11.13 Asian American Family Conflicts Scale (FCS) 191

    6.11.14 Cultural Adjustment Difficulties Checklist (CADC) 193

    6.12.1 Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) 195

    6.12.2 Acculturation Rating Scale (ARS) 197

    6.12.3 Acculturation and Structural Assimilation Scales (ASAS) 199

    6.12.4 Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS) 201

    6.12.5 Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans—II (Brief ARSMA-II [aka, ARSMA-II-SF]) 203

    6.12.6 Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (MAS II) 205

    6.12.7 Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area Acculturation Scale (LAECAAS) 207

    6.12.8 Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS) 209

    6.12.9 Puerto Rican Biculturality Scale (PRBS) 210

    6.12.10 Children's Acculturation Scale (CAS) 212

    6.12.11 Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) 213

    6.12.12 Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC) 215

    6.12.13 Measure of Acculturation for Chicano Adolescents (MACA) 217

    6.12.14 Cultural Life Styles Inventory (CLSI) 218

    6.12.15 Padilla's Acculturation Scale (PAS) 220

    6.12.16 Cultural Socialization Scale (CSS) 222

    6.12.17 Pan-Hispanic Familism Scale (P-HFS) 224

    6.12.18 Attitudinal Familism Scale (AFS) 225

    6.12.19 Expectations of Filial Piety Scale—Spanish Version (EFPS-SV) 227

    6.12.20 Latino/a Values Scale (LVS) 229

    6.12.21 Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs—Short Form (MACC-SF) 231

    6.13.1 Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS) 233

    6.13.2 Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) 235

    6.13.3 American-International Relations Scale (AIRS) 237

    6.13.4 Majority-Minority Relations Survey (MMRS) 239

    6.13.5 Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA) 241

    6.13.6 Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS) 243

    6.13.7 Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS-ZABB) 245

    6.13.8 Cortes, Rogler, and Malgady Bicultural Scale (CRM-BS) 247

    6.13.9 Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) 249

    7.9.1 Intolerant Schema Measure (ISM) 256

    7.9.2 Attitudes Toward Black Males Scale (ATBM) 259

    7.9.3 Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions Scale (MCPRS) 261

    7.9.4 Modified Godfrey-Richman ISM Scale (M-GRISMS-M) 263

    7.9.5 Privilege and Oppression Inventory (POI) 265

    7.9.6 The Symbolic Racism 2000 Scale (SR2KS) 267

    7.9.7 Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) 269

    7.9.8 Modern and Old Fashioned Racism Scale (MOFRS) 271

    7.9.9 Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS) 273

    7.9.10 Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) 275

    7.9.11 The White Privilege Attitudes Scale (WPAS) 278

    7.9.12 Internal Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice Scale and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice Scale (IMS and EMS) 280

    7.9.13 Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) 282

    7.10.1 Intragroup Marginalization Inventory (IMI) 284

    7.10.2 Own-Group Conformity Pressure Scale (OGCPS) 286

    7.10.3 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ) 288

    7.10.4 Perceptions of Racism Scale (PRS) 290

    7.10.5 Experience of Discrimination (EOD) 291

    7.10.6 Schedule of Racist Events (SRE) 293

    7.10.7 General Ethnic Discrimination Scale (GEDS) 296

    7.10.8 Scale of Ethnic Experience (SEE) 298

    7.10.9 Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) 300

    7.11.1 Hispanic Stress Inventory (HIS) 303

    7.11.2 Stereotype Confirmation Concern Scale (SCCS) 306

    7.11.3 Colonial Mentality Scale (CMS) 308

    7.11.4 Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) 310

    7.11.5 Race-Related Stressor Scale (RRSS) 312

    7.11.6 Psychosocial Costs of Racism for Whites (PCRW) 314

    7.11.7 Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) 316

    7.11.8 Africultural Coping Systems Inventory (ACSI) 318

    7.11.9 Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS/IRRS-B) 320

    7.11.10 Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) 323

    7.12.1 Everyday Discrimination Scale—Modified (EDS-M) 325

    7.12.2 Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index (ADDI) 326

    7.12.3 The Racial Bias Preparation Scale (RBPS) 328

    7.12.4 Scale of Racial Socialization—Adolescents (SORS-A) 330

    7.12.5 Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale (TERS) 332

    8.11.1 Machismo Measure (M-Measure) 341

    8.11.2 Bem Sex Role Inventory—Short (BSRI-S) 343

    8.11.3 Auburn Differential Masculinity Inventory—60 (ADMI-60) 345

    8.11.4 Adolescent Masculinity Ideology in Relationships Scale (AMIRS) 347

    8.11.5 Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale (MMIS) 349

    8.11.6 Male Role Norm Inventory—Revised (MRNI-R) 351

    8.11.7 Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) 353

    8.11.8 Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) 355

    8.11.9 Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) 358

    8.11.10 Hypermasculinity Inventory (HMI) 361

    8.11.11 Male Role Attitude Scale (MRAS) 363

    8.11.12 Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ) 364

    8.11.13 Macho Belief Inventory (MBI) 366

    8.11.14 Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS) 368

    8.11.15 Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale (AFIS) 370

    8.12.1 Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale (MGRS) 372

    8.12.2 Feminine Gender Role Stress Scale (FGRS) 374

    8.12.3 Normative Male Alexithymia Scale (NMAS) 376

    8.12.4 Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) 378

    8.12.5 Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) 380

    8.13.1 Perceived Social Inequity Scale—Women's Form (PSIS-W) 382

    8.13.2 The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) 384

    8.13.3 The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI) 386

    8.13.4 Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS) 388

    8.13.5 Schedule of Sexist Events (SSE) 390

    8.13.6 Transphobia Scale (TS) 393

    8.13.7 Attitudes Toward Women Scale—25 (AWS-25) 394

    8.13.8 Modern and Old Fashioned Sexism Scale (MOFSS) 396

    8.13.9 Neosexism Scale (NS) 398

    8.14.1 Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) 400

    8.14.2 Feminist Identity Composite (FIC) 402

    8.14.3 Feminist Identity Scale (FIS) 404

    8.14.4 Feminist Perspectives Scale (FPS) 406

    8.14.5 Womanist Identity Attitudes Scale (WIAS) 408

    8.14.6 Reference Group Identity Dependence Scale (RGIDS) 410

    8.15.1 Parent Gender-Based Attitudes Scale (PGBAS) 412

    8.15.2 The Child Gender Socialization Scale (CGSS) 414

    8.16.1 Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire—Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) 416

    8.16.2 Gender Identity (GI) 417

    8.16.3 Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQ) 419

    8.16.4 The Recalled Childhood Gender Questionnaire—Revised (RCGQ-R) 420

    9.9.1 Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) 428

    9.9.2 Kite Homosexuality Attitude Scale (KHAS) 430

    9.9.3 Modern Heterosexism and Queer/Liberationist Scales (MHQ/LS) 432

    9.9.4 Attitudes Regarding Bisexuality Scale (ARBS) 435

    9.9.5 Homopositivity Scale (HPS) 438

    9.9.6 Modern Homonegativity Scale (MHS) 440

    9.9.7 Homonegativity Scale (HS) 442

    9.9.8 Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSMS) 444

    9.9.9 The Modern Homophobia Scale—Lesbian (MHS-Lesbian) 446

    9.9.10 The Modern Homophobia Scale—Gay (MHS-Gay) 448

    9.9.11 Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Heterosexuals (LGB-KASH) 450

    9.9.12 Homophobia Scale (HS) 452

    9.10.1 Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale (LGIS) 454

    9.10.2 Outness Inventory (OI) 456

    9.10.3 Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC) 458

    9.11.1 Short Internalized Homonegativity Inventory (SIHS) 461

    9.11.2 Internalized Homonegativity Inventory for Gay Men (IHNI) 463

    9.11.3 Internalized Homophobia Scale (IHS) 465

    9.12.1 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Climate Inventory (LGBTCI) 467

    9.12.2 Homophobic Content Agent Target Scale (HCAT) 469

    9.12.3 Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection, and Discrimination Scale (HHRDS) 471

    10.15.1 Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals With an Intellectual Disability) (ASQ-ID) 479

    10.15.2 Attitude Towards Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP-O, ATDP-A, and ATDP-B) 481

    10.15.3 Disability Factor Scales—General (DFS-G) 484

    10.15.4 Disability Social Relations Generalized Disability (DSRGD) 487

    10.15.5 Interaction With Disabled Persons Scale (IDP) 489

    10.15.6 Multidimensional Attitude Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS) 492

    10.15.7 Scale of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons (SADP) 494

    10.15.8 Questions About Disability Survey (QADS) 496

    10.15.9 Contact With Disabled Persons Scale (CDP) 498

    10.16.1 Attitudes Toward Mentally Retarded People Scale (AMRP) 500

    10.16.2 Attitudes Toward the Retarded (ATR) 501

    10.16.3 Community Living Attitudes Scale—Mental Retardation (CLAS-MR) 503

    10.16.4 Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory—Revised (MRAI-R) 505

    10.17.1 Attitudes and Beliefs About Living With Epilepsy (ABLE) 507

    10.17.2 Scale of Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Epilepsy and Persons With Epilepsy (ATPE) 509

    10.17.3 Thinking About Epilepsy Questionnaire (TAEQ) 511

    10.17.4 Test of Knowledge About Epilepsy (KAE) 514

    10.18.1 Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS) 516

    10.18.2 Mainstreaming Opinionnaire (MO) 518

    10.18.3 Multidimensional Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (MATIES) 520

    10.18.4 Opinion Related to Integration (ORI [Original version is called Opinion Relative to Mainstreaming-ORM]) 522

    10.18.5 Response to Inclusion Survey (RIS [AKA-Preservice Inclusion Survey (PSIS) as modified]) 524

    10.19.1 Beliefs About Illness (BAI) 526

    10.19.2 Community Attitudes Toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) 528

    10.19.3 Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) 530

    10.19.4 Participation in Research Attitude Scale (PRAS) 533

    10.19.5 Standardized Stigmatization Questionnaire—Version 1 (SSQ1) 535

    10.20.1 Attitudes Toward Blindness (ATB) 537

    10.20.2 Opinion About Deaf People (ODP) 539

    10.21.1 Acceptance of Disability (AD) 541

    10.21.2 Appearance Management and Social Interaction Scale (AMSI) 543

    10.22.1 Depression Self-Stigma Scale (DSSS) 545

    10.22.2 Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) 548

    10.22.3 Perceived Stigma in People With Intellectual Disability (PSPID) 551

    10.22.4 Stigma Questionnaire (SQ) 553

    10.22.5 Stigma Scale (SS) 555

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