Each scale is prefaced by the same information. Details are provided of construct, description, development, samples, validity, scores, sources, references, and other evidence. The book includes a number of measures that have been used in several studies. The volume serves as a guide to the literature and may spur further refinement of existing measures in terms of item reduction, dimensionality, reliability, and validity. This Handbook also aims to help identify areas where measures are needed, thus encouraging further development of valid measures of consumer behavior and marketing constructs.

Sales, Sales Management, Organizational Behavior, and Interfirm-Intrafirm Issues

Sales, sales management, organizational behavior, and interfirm-intrafirm issues

Job Satisfaction Measures

Agents’ Socially Desirable Responding: ASDR Scale

(Manning, Bearden, and Tian 2009)


Agents’ socially desirable responding (ASDR) is defined as organizational informants’ tendencies to present the firm favorably with respect to norms and standards (Manning, Bearden, and Tian 2009, p. 33). The ASDR scale is designed to assist in survey research using key informants and the assessment of response biases. Specifically, the scale is intended for use in detecting social desirability bias in managers’ responses to subjective performance measures. As such, ASDR acts as an effective control variable for social desirability response bias in organizational settings.


The unidimensional scale comprises eight items anchored by not true (1) and very true (7). Four ...

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