Each scale is prefaced by the same information. Details are provided of construct, description, development, samples, validity, scores, sources, references, and other evidence. The book includes a number of measures that have been used in several studies. The volume serves as a guide to the literature and may spur further refinement of existing measures in terms of item reduction, dimensionality, reliability, and validity. This Handbook also aims to help identify areas where measures are needed, thus encouraging further development of valid measures of consumer behavior and marketing constructs.

Values and Goals

Values and goals

General Values

List of Values: LOV

(Kahle 1983)


The term value has been defined as an enduring prescriptive or prescriptive belief that a specific end state of existence or specific mode of conduct is preferred to an opposite end state or mode of conduct for living one's life (Kahle 1983; Rokeach 1968, 1973).

The List of Values (LOV) typology draws a distinction between external and internal values, and it notes the importance of interpersonal relations in value fulfillment, as well as personal factors (i.e., self-respect, self-fulfillment) and apersonal factors (i.e., fun, security, excitement) in value fulfillment. In essence, the LOV measures those values that are central to people in living their lives, particularly the values of life's major roles (i.e., marriage, parenting, work, leisure, ...

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