Each scale is prefaced by the same information. Details are provided of construct, description, development, samples, validity, scores, sources, references, and other evidence. The book includes a number of measures that have been used in several studies. The volume serves as a guide to the literature and may spur further refinement of existing measures in terms of item reduction, dimensionality, reliability, and validity. This Handbook also aims to help identify areas where measures are needed, thus encouraging further development of valid measures of consumer behavior and marketing constructs.

Traits and Individual Difference Variables

Traits and individual difference variables

Scales Related to Interpersonal Orientation, Needs/Preferences, and Self-Concept

Ten-Item and Five-Item Personality Inventories

(Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann 2003)


The Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality is designed to succinctly capture the Big-Five personality dimensions, including Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience. While longer measures are associated with more sound psychometric properties, Gosling et al. (2003) argue for and demonstrate the usefulness of a much shorter personality assessment.


Two versions of a brief personality measure are offered: a Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) and a Five-Item version (FIPI). Each item has two brief descriptions that are related to each other. In addition, the FIPI includes some explanation of each set of descriptors. All items in the scales are answered ...

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