This comprehensive yet practical handbook consolidates information needed by health psychologists working alongside other healthcare professionals. It facilitates the progression of the learner from the classroom to the clinical setting by focusing on the translation of science to practice using practical examples. The Handbook is divided into four major parts. Part I highlights practical issues faced by health psychologists in a medical setting (how to motivate patients, consultation-liaison, assessment and screening, brief psychotherapies, ethical issues, etc.) Part II concentrates on treating unhealthy behaviors (alcohol and nicotine use, noncompliance, overeating/obesity, physical inactivity, stress). Part III considers behavioral aspects of medical problems (pain management, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, sexual dysfunction, HIV/AIDS, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia). And Part IV takes up special issues relevant to practice and research in the field (minority issues, women’s issues, working with geriatric populations, public health approaches to health psychology and behavioral medicine). The Handbook will prove to be an invaluable resource for those already working in the field of health psychology as well as for those in training.
Chapter 19: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by severe immunosuppression and ensuing opportunistic infections that result from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The disease was first recognized in 1981 with the unexplained occurrence of clusters of cases of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma among young homosexual men. As such, it was initially referred to as gay-related immune disorder. As similar cases of these and other opportunistic infections associated with unexplained immunosuppression were subsequently reported in persons with hemophilia, recipients of blood products/transfusions, and injecting drug users and their heterosexual partners, the disease entity was renamed acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
In 1996, pharmacological treatment advances introduced a new era to ...