Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's diverse physical land surface features and the dynamic processes that shape these features. Examining natural and anthropogenic processes, The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology is a comprehensive exposition of the fundamentals of geomorphology that examines form, process, and history in the discipline. Organized into four sections, the Handbook is an overview of foundations and relevance, including the nature and scope of geomorphology, the origins and development of geomorphology, the role and character of theory in geomorphology, the significance of models and abstractions to geomorphology; techniques and approaches, including geomorphological mapping, field observations and experimental design, remote sensing in geomorphology, quantifying rates of erosion, measuring fluid flows and sediment fluxes, dating surfaces and sediment, GIS in geomorphology, and modelling landforms and processes; process and environment, including rock weathering, the evolution of regolith, hill slopes, riverine environments, glacial environments, periglacial environments, coastal environments, desert environments, karst landscapes, environmental change and anthropogenic activity; and environmental change, including geomorphology and environmental management, geomorphology and society, and planetary geomorphology.
Mapping of landforms is probably as old as the making of maps. Mountain ranges, volcanoes and plains all appear on early representations of land. Often the mountains were represented as hachures or ‘hairy caterpillars’, the depiction of which reached a high art form with the maps of Erwin J. Raisz (e.g. Raisz, 1951, see also Robinson, 1970) and A.K. Lobeck (e.g. 1957) (Plate 3a, page 589). These maps were compiled according to set standards, and specified symbols were used. Subsequently there have been several attempts to set standardized symbols and methods, especially by the International Geographical Union (IGU) (e.g. Leszczycki, 1963; International Geographical Union, 1968). This was driven, in part, by the complexity of information that can be ...