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Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's diverse physical land surface features and the dynamic processes that shape these features. Examining natural and anthropogenic processes, The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology is a comprehensive exposition of the fundamentals of geomorphology that examines form, process, and history in the discipline. Organized into four sections, the Handbook is an overview of foundations and relevance, including the nature and scope of geomorphology, the origins and development of geomorphology, the role and character of theory in geomorphology, the significance of models and abstractions to geomorphology; techniques and approaches, including geomorphological mapping, field observations and experimental design, remote sensing in geomorphology, quantifying rates of erosion, measuring fluid flows and sediment fluxes, dating surfaces and sediment, GIS in geomorphology, and modelling landforms and processes; process and environment, including rock weathering, the evolution of regolith, hill slopes, riverine environments, glacial environments, periglacial environments, coastal environments, desert environments, karst landscapes, environmental change and anthropogenic activity; and environmental change, including geomorphology and environmental management, geomorphology and society, and planetary geomorphology.

Tropical Environments
Tropical environments
MichaelThomas and VishwasKale
The Nature of Tropical Environments

‘The tropics’ encompass environments ranging from the per-humid to the semi-arid, but for most purposes the latter areas are considered separately or with the arid zone. The humid and sub-humid tropics include both the rainforests (P >1600 mm y−1; dry season 2–4 months) and the wetter savannas (P 800–1600 mm y−1; dry season 5–7 months). Some highly seasonal (usually monsoon) climates that receive high rainfalls (>2000 mm y−1) also support luxuriant forests, while ‘tropical’ conditions extend to 30° north and south of the equator along east coasts of the continents.

Many tropical environments experience extremes of rainfall, wind and drought, and all of these have major impacts on the geomorphology. The high moisture capacity of warm oceanic ...

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