Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's diverse physical land surface features and the dynamic processes that shape these features. Examining natural and anthropogenic processes, The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology is a comprehensive exposition of the fundamentals of geomorphology that examines form, process, and history in the discipline. Organized into four sections, the Handbook is an overview of foundations and relevance, including the nature and scope of geomorphology, the origins and development of geomorphology, the role and character of theory in geomorphology, the significance of models and abstractions to geomorphology; techniques and approaches, including geomorphological mapping, field observations and experimental design, remote sensing in geomorphology, quantifying rates of erosion, measuring fluid flows and sediment fluxes, dating surfaces and sediment, GIS in geomorphology, and modelling landforms and processes; process and environment, including rock weathering, the evolution of regolith, hill slopes, riverine environments, glacial environments, periglacial environments, coastal environments, desert environments, karst landscapes, environmental change and anthropogenic activity; and environmental change, including geomorphology and environmental management, geomorphology and society, and planetary geomorphology.
Periglacial geomorphology is the sub-discipline of geomorphology concerned with the landforms and processes of the cold non-glacial regions of the world. Fundamental to the discipline is the freezing of water and its associated frost heaving and ice segregation. Permafrost is a central, but not defining element. Other components include the impact of seasonal freezing, the role of seasonal snow and the relevance of fluvial, lacustrine and sea-ice covers. The study of those azonal processes that exhibit distinct behavioural and/or magnitude and frequency distributions under coldclimate conditions is also regarded as falling within the sphere of periglacial geomorphology.
Periglacial environments occupy approximately 20 per cent of the world land area. But their human population is only 7–9 million, mostly living in Russia, or only ...