The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge is a critical inquiry into how Geography as a field of knowledge has been produced, re-produced, and re-imagined. It comprises three sections on Geographical Orientations, Geography’s Venues, and Critical Geographical Concepts and Controversies. The first provides an overview of the genealogy of ‘geography.' The second highlights the types of spatial settings and locations in which geographical knowledge has been produced. The third focuses on venues of primary importance in the historical geography of geographical thought.

Social Class

Social class


Theorizations of social class represent the first attempt in European social theory to systematically account for how the social location of human agents shapes their conditions of possibility in society (now supplemented by a variety of other concepts including race and gender). It took shape in German and French sociological theory in the nineteenth century (associated with Marx, Weber and Durkheim), from which it diffused into the Anglophone social sciences, and eventually (after 1945) into geography. An analysis of geographical applications of class, and geographical theories of class, thus cannot be understood without some attention to its genealogy in social theory. We thus begin the chapter with a brief overview of sociological theories of class, highlighting the (shifting) spatial ontologies embedded in ...

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