The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge


Edited by: John Agnew & David N. Livingstone

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Orientations

    Part 2: Geography's Venues

    Part 3: Critical Concepts and Controversies

  • Editorial Board

    • Professor Keith Richards, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Cambridge
    • Professor Robert Mayhew, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol
    • Professor Glen MacDonald, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    • Professor Susan Schulten, Department of History, University of Denver, USA


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    List of Contributors

    John A. Agnew is Distinguished Professor of Geography at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. In 2008–9 he was President of the Association of American Geographers. He is the author, co-author, or editor of many books and articles including, most recently, Globalization and Sovereignty (2009), Berlusconi's Italy (2008), and Companion to Human Geography (2011).

    Trevor Barnes is a Professor and Distinguished University Scholar at the Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. His research interests are in the new economy, the video game and film and tv industries, and in the history of geography. He is currently writing a book, Notes from the Underground, about the influence of World War II and the Cold War on the development of American geography.

    Caroline Bressey is a lecturer in the Department of Geography, University College London. Her research focuses on the historical geographies of the black presence in Victorian Britain, particularly London. The aim of her research is to recover geographical biographies of black people including their experiences of race and racism. This is closely linked to her examination of the early anti-racist community which emerged in Britain at the end of the Victorian period. Dr Bressey also investigates the representation of these histories in public spaces such as galleries and museums. A member of the London Mayor's Commission on African and Asian Heritage, she has undertaken curatorial roles for the National Portrait Gallery and the Museum in Docklands and is a member of the management committee of BASA (the Black and Asian Studies Association).

    Noel Castree is a Professor of Geography at Manchester University, England. His main research interest is in the political economy of environmental change. His is managing editor of the journal Progress in Human Geography and author of Nature (2005). He is also co-editor of the books Questioning Geography (2005), David Harvey: A Critical Reader (2006), Social Nature (2001) and Remaking Reality (1998).

    Daniel Clayton teaches in the School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews. His teaching and research interests are in the area of cultural and historical geography, and alight on questions of colonialism and postcolonialism. He is the author of Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island (2000), and is currently working (with Gavin Bowd) on a book entitled ‘Impure and Worldly Geography’: Pierre Gourou and Tropicality.

    Nicholas Clifford is a Chartered Geographer, and obtained his undergraduate and post-graduate degrees at the University of Cambridge. He is currently Professor of Physical Geography at King's College, London, and was formerly Professor of River Science at the University of Nottingham. His research interests span sediment transport in fluvial and estuarine environments; hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling of river environments; and river restoration design and appraisal. He is Managing Editor of the Sage journal Progress in Physical Geo graphy, and co-editor of Sage's Key Methods (2010) and Key Concepts (2009) in Geography. He has authored more than 100 academic and conference papers.

    Paul Cloke is Professor of Human Geography in the College of Life and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter and has longstanding research interests in rural geography and rural change. He has been the Founder Editor of Journal of Rural Studies since 1985, and is Editor (with Terry Marsden and Patrick Mooney) of The Sage Handbook of Rural Studies.

    Dennis Conway is Professor Emeritus of Geography at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. He has written over 140 articles and book chapters on Nepalese migration and development, environmental and ecological issues, Caribbean urbanization, migration, economic development, alternative tourism and the environmental consequences of these societal processes. His recent books include Return Migration of the Next Generations: 21st Century Transnational Mobility (with Robert B. Potter, 2009); The Experience of Return Migration: Caribbean Perspectives (with Robert B. Potter and Joan Phillips, 2005); and Globalization's Contradictions: Geographies of Discipline, Destruction and Transformation (with Nik Heynen, 2006).

    Mike Crang is a Reader in Geography at Durham University. His research on time has focused upon urban rhythms and the role of Information and communication technologies in changing the organisation of the times and spaces of daily life. He has published several books, including recently co-editing the Handbook of Qualitative Geography (Sage), the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (12 volumes, Elsevier), the Encyclopedia of Urban Studies (2 volumes, Sage) and Cultures of Mass Tourism: the Mediterranean in the Age of Banal Mobilities (Ashgate). He was the editor of the journal Time & Society from 1997–2006.

    Tim Cresswell is Professor of Human Geography at Royal Holloway, University of London. His research interests are broadly in issues surrounding the conceptualization of place and mobility, spatialities of ordering and geographical theory more generally. He is currently writing a monograph which reconceptualises place through an account of one hundred years of a Chicago market. He is the author of On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World (Routledge, 2006); Place: A Short Introduction (Blackwell, 2004); The Tramp in America (Reaktion, 2001) and In Place/Out of Place: Geography, Ideology and Transgression (Minnesota, 1996). He has co-edited four volumes, most recently, Geographies of Mobilities: Practices, Spaces, Subjects (Ashgate, 2011).

    Stephen Daniels is Professor of Cultural Geography at the University of Nottingham. Since 2005 he has been Director of the AHRC programme in Landscape and Environment. His books include Fields of Vision (1992), Joseph Wright (1999) and Humphry Repton: Landscape Gardening and the Geography of Georgian England (1999) also the exhibition catalogues Art of the Garden (Tate, 2004) and Paul Sandby: Picturing Britain (Royal Academy, 2009). He is presently researching the public value of landscape and environment research and continuing his work on the history and theory of eighteenth century landscape art and design.

    Mustafa Dikeç is Lecturer at the Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London. His research interests include space and politics, histories of time and space, and hospitality. His current research focuses on policies and geographies of asylum in Europe, and the unification and distribution of time in nineteenth century Paris. He is the author of Badlands of the Republic: Space, Politics and Urban Policy (Blackwell, 2007), and editor (with Nigel Clark and Clive Barnett) of Extending Hospitality: Giving Space, Taking Time (Edinburgh University Press, 2009).

    Georgina Endfield is a Reader in Environmental History in the School of Geography, University of Nottingham. Her research focuses on mainly on the environmental and climate history of colonial Mexico and nineteenth century central, southern and eastern Africa. She has published her research in journals across the disciplines of Geography, History, Archaeology and the History of Science and is the author of Climate and Society in Colonial Mexico: a Study in Vulnerability (Blackwell, 2008).

    J. Nicholas Entrikin is an emeritus faculty member in the Department of Geographyat UCLA, where he also served as the Vice-Provost for International Studies and directed the International Institute. Currently, he is Professor of Sociology and Vice President for Internationalization at the University of Notre Dame. He is the author of The Betweenness of Place (1991), the co-editor of The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor (2004), and the editor of Regions (2008).

    Jim Glassman is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of British Columbia. His research focuses on uneven development and social struggle, including the roles of states in these processes. He has conducted most of his research in Thailand, China, and, more recently, South Korea. He is the author of Thailand at the Margins: Internationalization of the State and the Transformation of Labour (Oxford University Press, 2004) and Bounding the Mekong: The Asian Development Bank, China, and Thailand (University of Hawai'i Press, 2010).

    Anne Godlewska is a Professor of Geography at Queen's University and President of the Canadian Association of Geographers. Her work is concerned with trans-cultural communication, the geographic imagination, and the mechanisms and consequences of imperialism. Among her publications are Geography Unbound (1999), The Napoleonic Survey of Egypt (1989) and the co-edited book Geography and Empire (1994). She has also authored a web-based atlas:

    Michael F. Goodchild is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Director of UCSB's Center for Spatial Studies. He received his BA degree from Cambridge University in Physics in 1965 and his PhD in Geography from McMaster University in 1969, and has received four honorary doctorates. He was elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and Foreign Member of the Royal Society of Canada (2002), member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2006), and Foreign Member of the Royal Society and Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy (2010); and in 2007 he received the Prix Vautrin Lud. He was editor of Geographical Analysis between 1987 and 1990 and editor of the Methods, Models, and Geographic Information Sciences section of the Annals of the Association of American Geographers from 2000 to 2006. He serves on the editorial boards of ten other journals and book series, and has published more than 15 books and 400 articles. He was Chair of the National Research Council's Mapping Science Committee from 1997 to 1999, and currently chairs the Advisory Committee on Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences of the National Science Foundation. His current research interests center on geographic information science, spatial analysis, and uncertainty in geographic data.

    Andrew Goudie is a Professor of Geography at the University of Oxford and the Master of St Cross College. He has spent most of his career working as a geomorphologist in the world's deserts. He is a recipient of a Royal Medal from the Royal Geographical Society, the Mungo

    Park Medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and the Farouk El-Baz Award of the Geological Society of America. He is the author of Great Warm Deserts of the World (2002) and Wheels across the Desert – Exploration of the Libyan Desert by Motorcar 1916–1942 (2009).

    Jason Grek Martin is a historical-cultural geographer and his recent research has focused on the scientific surveying and exploration of western Canada carried out during the late nineteenth century by George Dawson and the Geological Survey of Canada. He is also embarking on a new research project exploring how people's attachments to cherished ‘places of nature’ (such as urban parks, national parks, and UNESCO World Heritage Sites) have been/are being altered by profound transformative events, such as natural disasters and climate change.

    Jude Hill was awarded her PhD on ‘Cultures and Networks of Collecting: The Henry Wellcome Collection’ in 2004 from Royal Holloway, University of London. She then worked at the University of Exeter as lecturer in Human Geography until 2008, when she joined the University of Bristol's Research Development team. While Jude no longer works as an academic, she still has an enduring interest in: historical and cultural geography; collections, collectors and collecting; museums, and much else besides.

    Mike Heffernan is Professor of Historical Geography at the University of Nottingham in the UK. He is interested in the history and politics of geography and cartography in Europe and North America from the 18th century to 20th centuries.

    Phil Hubbard is Professor of Urban Studies, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent. He has written widely on the social life of cities, and is author of numerous books including The Sage Compendium of Urban Studies (2008, co-edited with John Short and Tim Hall), Key Thinkers on Space and Place (2011, co-edited with Rob Kitchin) and Key Concepts in Geography The City (2006, Routledge). He is currently working on a monograph that draws on his many studies of the relationship between sexuality and the city (to be published by Routledge, 2011).

    Nuala C. Johnson is a Reader in Human Geography at the School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast. She is an historical geographer with research interests in the relationships between memory politics and representation; spaces of scientific knowledge and aesthetics; and place and literary geographies. Her recent books include Ireland, the Great War and the Geography of Remembrance (2003, Cambridge University Press); A Companion to Cultural Geography (co-editor, 2004, Blackwell); Culture and Society (editor, 2008, Ashgate); Nature Displaced, Nature Displayed: Order and Beauty in Botanic Gardens (2011, IB Tauris).

    Heike Jöns is a Lecturer in Human Geography at Loughborough University (UK). She received her PhD at the University of Heidelberg (Germany) and spent two years as a Feodor Lynen Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Nottingham (UK). Her research examines historical and contemporary geographies of science and higher education, with a focus on transnational academic mobility.

    Gerry Kearns is a Co-Convenor of the Historical-Cultural Research Cluster. He is a director of the Centre for Gender Studies at Cambridge, and is Historical Geography Convenor for the European Social Science History Association. His research focuses on the history and cultural politics of public health; geography and imperialism; and geographical imaginaries of Irish nationalism. He has published over forty articles and is co-editor of Selling Places: The City as Cultural Capital, Past and Present (1993, with Chris Philo) and Urbanising Britain: Essays on Class and Community in the Nineteenth Century (1991, with Charles Withers). He has recently finished Geopolitics and Empire, a book about the relations between the ideologies of Victorian-British and Neo-Conservative-American imperialism, and Vital Politics, an ESRC-funded international and interdisciplinary seminar series about the political, economic and social circumstances under which the beginning and end of life are culturally and technologically constructed (with Simon Reid-Henry, Queen Mary College, University of London). He is currently working on a book about the geography of Irish nationalism, Young Ireland: Colonialism, Violence, Nationalism.

    Chris Keylock obtained BA, MSc. and PhD. degrees in Geography from the universities of Oxford, British Columbia and Cambridge, respectively. He is currently a Prize Senior Lecturer in the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield. His research spans a range of disciplines within Geography but is primarily oriented towards granular mass flows and their risk assessment, turbulence processes and the development of methods for analysing nonlinear processes.

    Scott Kirsch is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research on nineteenth and twentieth century American science and technology explores the spaces of knowledge production and the relations between science and the state. He is the author of Proving Grounds: Project Plowshare and the Unrealized Dream of Nuclear Earthmoving (Rutgers, 2005) and editor, with Colin Flint, of Reconstructing Conflict: Integrating War and Post-War Geographies (Ashgate, 2011).

    Stuart Lane has been professeur de géomorphologie at l'Université de Lausanne, Switzerland, since February 2011. Before then he was Director of the Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience in Durham University having previously held a Chair in Physical Geography at Leeds University and a Lectureship at the University of Cambridge. His work is concerned with the monitoring and mathematical modelling of hydrological and geomorphological processes and has been recognised by a number of awards including the Jan de Ploey Award of the International Association of Geomorphologists, the Ralph A Bagnold Award of the European Geosciences Union, the Annual Award of the Association of Rivers Trusts for contributions to science and two best paper prizes from scientific journals.

    Roger Lee (AcSS) is Emeritus Professor of Geography in the School of Geography, Queen Mary University of London. His economic geographical interests lie in the socio-material constructions of economic geographies with especial reference to alternative systems of value and to the meanings and effects of money within economic geographies. Recent publications include Interrogating Alterity Alternative Economic and Political Spaces (edited with Duncan Fuller and Andrew Jonas, 2010); Economic society/Social geography (in The Sage Handbook of Social Geographies, edited by Susan J. Smith et al., 2010); Within and outwith/Material and political? Local economic development and the spatialities of economic geographies (in A Hand book of Local and Regional Development edited by Andy Pike et al., 2011); Acts of theory and violence Can the worlds of economic geographies be left intact? (in Postcolonial Economies, edited by Jane Pollard et al., 2011).

    David N. Livingstone is Professor of Geography and Intellectual History at Queen's University Belfast and a Fellow of the British Academy. He is the author of numerous books including The Geographical Tradition, Putting Science in it Place and Adam's Ancestors. He is currently working on a geography of Darwinism under the title Dealing with Darwin, and is beginning a major project on the history of climatic determinism entitled The Empire of Climate.

    George P. Malanson, is the Coleman-Miller Professor in the Department of Geography, University of Iowa. He received his PhD in Geography from UCLA (1983). His research and teaching interests are in biogeography, mountains, physical geography, spatial simulations. He is the North American editor of Progress in Physical Geography and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    Bryan Mark researches the nature, extent, and biophysical impact of changes in glacier environments over time. His collaborative group research focuses on modern glacier recession as well as Late-Glacial to Holocene variability, and aims to develop transdisciplinary understanding of climate forcing, hydrologic impacts, social adaptation and vulnerability. He specializes in glacier environmental change in the Andes, but also works in North America and Africa. He earned his PhD in Earth Sciences from Syracuse University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany.

    Robert Mayhew is Professor of Historical Geography and Intellectual History at the University of Bristol, UK. He is the author of Enlightenment Geography (2000) and many articles on the history of British geography in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He is currently writing a study of the ideas and intellectual legacy of Thomas Robert Malthus.

    Simon Naylor is Senior Lecturer in Historical Geography at the University of Exeter. He has written extensively on the spaces of knowledge production and dissemination, including museums, fieldsites, weather observatories, conversaziones and exhibitions. He is the co-editor (with James R. Ryan) of New Spaces of Exploration: Geographies of Discovery in the Twentieth Century (IB Tauris, 2010). He is the author of Regionalizing Science: Placing Knowledges in Victorian England, (Pickering & Chatto, 2010).

    Miles Ogborn is Professor of Geography at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Spaces of Modernity: London's Geographies, 1680–1780 (1998), Indian Ink: Script and Print in the Making of the English East India Company (2007) and Global Lives: Britain and the World, 1550–1800 (2008). He is currently working on the relationships between talk and text in Britain's early modern Atlantic world.

    Antony R. Orme (PhD, 1961, University of Birmingham, England) is Emeritus Professor of Geography in the University of California, Los Angeles. His research involves geomorphology, Quaternary studies, and environmental management, with a focus on the nature and processes of landscape change, interactive tectonic and climatic forcing, human impacts, and Earth science history. He has worked extensively in western North America, the Caribbean, Africa, Britain and Ireland. Recent research papers address river-mouth and beach morphodynamics, multidecadal coastal changes, Pleistocene and Holocene pluvial lakes, coastal dunes and sea-level fluctuations, Clarence Dutton and isostasy, and shifting paradigms in geomorphology.

    Rob Potter BSc PhD (London) DSc (Reading) AcSS is currently Head of the School of Human and Environmental Sciences and Professor of Human Geography at the University of Reading. His research and teaching interests span development geography and development studies; urban geography; second-generation return migration; transnationality and issues of identity and social equity aspects of the use of water in Jordan. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the interdisciplinary journal Progress in Development Studies. He is currently a member of the International Editorial Boards of the journals Third World Quarterly, Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies, and Blackwell Geography Compass.

    Keith Richards is Professor of Geography at the University of Cambridge, where he has been since 1984 as Lecturer, Reader and Professor. His current research focuses on river and catchment science, hydrology and water resource management, especially in East and South-East Asia (he has undertaken field research in Thailand, India, and China). He is also interested in science studies, the nature of interdisciplinarity, and methodology in physical geography and the environmental sciences. He has been Vice President of the RGS-IBG, and has been a member of the Peer Review Colleges of both NERC and ESRC and Chair of the UK Research Assessment Exercise panel for Geography and Environmental Studies. His publications number about 200 (journal articles, chapters, and edited and authored books).

    Neil Roberts is Professor of Geography at the University of Plymouth in England. He received his PhD from the University of London (UCL), and has been subsequently been researcher at the University of Oxford and Lecturer at Loughborough University. His research emphasizes past climatic and environmental change since the time of the last glacial maximum, specifically derived from lake-sediment archives. He has worked extensively in eastern Africa, the Mediterranean and West Asia, often with close links to archaeology. Since 1993 he has directed a series of field programmes in Turkey. He is author of the key text, the Holocene, and is an editor of the journal Quaternary Science Reviews. Professor Roberts is a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and has served on many national and international committees concerning past global changes. This included the National Academies Committee on Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Past 2,000 Years, set up at the request of the US Congress in 2006. In 2007 he was visiting Blaustein research fellow at Stanford University.

    Joanne Sharp is a Senior Lecturer in Geography at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Her research interests are in feminist, cultural, political and postcolonial geographies, specifically around issues of identity, geopolitics, and issues of voice and agency in development. She is author of Condensing the Cold War: Reader's Digest and American Identity (2000, University of Minnesota) and Geographies of Postcolonialism: Spaces of Power and Representation (2009, Sage), and has published in journals such as Third World Quarterly, Society and Space, Political Geography and Cultural Geographies.

    Yongwei Sheng is a scientist in the field of Geospatial Information Systems and Technologies (GIST) with research interests in remote sensing, photogrammetry, geographic information systems (GIS), and their applications in large-area environmental monitoring and assessment. He contributes to the development of scientific, theoretical and methodological aspects of GIST, and his research includes regional-scale lake dynamics mapping and monitoring using GIST in the context of climate change through NSF and NASA-funded projects.

    Eric Sheppard is Regents Professor of Geography and Associate Director of the Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Global Change. University of Minnesota. He has published The Capitalist Space Economy (with Trevor Barnes), A World of Difference (with Philip Porter, David Faust and Richa Nagar), A Companion to Economic Geography (with Barnes), Scale and Geographic Inquiry (with Robert McMaster), Reading Economic Geography and Politics and Practice in Economic Geography (with Trevor Barnes, Jamie Peck and Adam Tickell), Contesting Neoliberalism (with Helga Leitner and Jamie Peck), and over one hundred refereed journal articles.

    Nick Spedding first became interested in the history of geographical knowledge as an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge. This interest developed further during his postgraduate studies at the University of Edinburgh, where he completed a PhD in glacial geomorphology. He is now a lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, where his work continues to focus on the history and philosophy of the earth and environmental sciences.

    Gerard Toal (Gearóid Ó Tuathail) is Professor of Government and International Affairs at Virginia Tech's campus in the Washington DC metro region. He was educated in political geography at the National University of Ireland at Maynooth (BA, Hons, 1982), the University of Illinois (MA, 1984), and Syracuse University (PhD, 1989). He is the author of Critical Geopolitics (Routledge, 1996) and an editor of A Companion to Political Geography (Blackwell, 2002) and The Geopolitics Reader (2nd edition Routledge, 2006) amongst other works. His latest book is Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and its Reversal (Oxford University Press, 2011).

    Tim Unwin is Professor of Geography and UNESCO Chair in ICT4D. He is also Chair of the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission. In 2007–2008 he was Director and then Senior Advisor to the World Economic Forum's Partnerships for Education programme with UNESCO. From 2001–2004 he led the UK Prime Minister's Imfundo initiative based in the Department for International Development, creating partnerships to deliver ICT-based educational initiatives in Africa. Since returning to Royal Holloway, University of London, he has created an ICT4D Collective, which undertakes research, teaching and consultancy in the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development. His other research interests include the interface between ethics and geography, contemporary rural change in Europe, and the historical geography of viticulture and the wine trade.

    Michael Williams was Professor of Geography and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. A Fellow of the British Academy, he was the author of several books including The Draining of the Somerset Levels (1970), The Making of the South Australian Landscape (1976), Americans and their Forests (1989) and Deforesting the Earth, From Prehistory to Global Crisis. At the time of his death in October 2009, he was completing a biographical study of Carl Sauer which is now in press.

    Charles W. J. Withers is Professor of Historical Geography at the University of Edinburgh. With David Livingstone, he has co-edited Geography and Enlightenment (1999), Geography and Revolution (2005) and Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Science (2011). Other recent publications include Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically about the Age of Reason (2007) and Geography and Science in Britain 1831–1939: A Study of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (2010). He is currently working on exploration, instrumentation and travel writing in the period c.1780–1850.

    John Wylie is Senior Lecturer in Cultural Geography at the University of Exeter. His research focuses on issues of landscape, performance, spectrality and geographical theory more widely, and he has written a series of articles and book chapters on these topics, as well as a single-authored book, Landscape (Routledge, 2007).

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