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Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Geographic information systems (GIS)

Geographic information system (GIS) technology is a computerized system that is capable of storing, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information. This system is comprised of a complex assemblage of hardware, software, data, people, and organizational and institutional arrangements (Dueker & Kjerne, 1989). The goal here is to provide a brief introduction to the fundamental principles and concepts of GIS, some applications and policy implications, and speculations of the future development of GIS.

GIS has evolved from a variety of fields including geography and cartography, land use planning, census administration, computer science, remote sensing, geodesy, and the military (Pavlovskaya, 2009). In particular, the method of overlaying several map layers introduced by Ian McHarg in the early 1960s has been ...

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