The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education brings together leading scholars on gender and education to provide an up-to-date and broad-ranging guide to the field. It is a comprehensive overview of different theoretical positions on equity issues in schools. The contributions cover all sectors of education from early years to higher education; curriculum subjects; methodological and theoretical perspectives; and gender identities in education. Each chapter reviews, synthesises, and provides a critical interrogation of key contemporary themes in education. This approach ensures that the book will be an indispensable source of reference for a wide range of readers: students, academics and practitioners.
Chapter 3: Femininities: Reclassifying Upward Mobility and the Neo-Liberal Subject1
Femininities: Reclassifying Upward Mobility and the Neo-Liberal Subject1
Second-wave feminism ignited a new interest in girls' and women's education, and innovative research in the field. Ground-breaking studies, such as those by Elena Belotti (1975), Dale Spender (1982), and Carole Gilligan (1982), documented how girls' experiences and perspectives were being systematically belittled and marginalized by their male pupil peers, teachers, and the school system itself. While some studies focused on the way in which educational resources are disproportionately directed at boys, and the discriminatory practices and attitudes in educational environments that worked to ‘teach girls their place’, others attacked the masculinist epistemology underpinning the very construction of knowledge. Within this emerging body of work, two key understandings of gender ...