Handbook of Feminist Family Studies


Edited by: Sally A. Lloyd & April L. Few

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    We dedicate this book to our parents, Ed and Charlene Lloyd, Clarence J. Few, Jr. and Geralyn B. Few, and Jack and Betty Allen. We thank them for teaching us how to stand up for ourselves, even when we were young girls.

    We also dedicate this book to our partners, Andrew Wong, David Demo, and Jeff Burr, and thank them for their unwavering support.


    Over the past three decades, feminist theory, research, and praxis have had a significant impact on the field of family studies. Feminist family scholars have generated new theories, methodologies, and practices regarding how women, men, children, youth, and older adults relate in families and society. Feminists demanded that family studies become more attentive to contextualized and gendered understandings of families; as a result, we can no longer imagine a field of family studies that would limit itself to its once prevalent yet narrow view of “the family” as a White, middle-class, heterosexual, nuclear unit of husband, wife, and dependent children. This example is just one of many ways in which feminism has profoundly affected the field of family studies.

    At the same time that feminist ideas have been infused into the discipline of family studies, they have also been challenged and debated throughout the wider culture as feminist movements have come of age. Ironically, as feminist ideas are embraced, there is also a backlash against them. Feminist ideas either comingle or clash with other discourses and practices, particularly with the emergence of third-wave, transnational, and intersectional feminisms. Feminist ideas and practices occupy both old and new spaces in family studies—and they are increasingly subject to critique by feminists themselves. There is a great deal of interest in and need for feminist family scholars who span interdisciplinary fields to share the ways in which they integrate and critique their work across disciplines, practices, cultures, theories, and methods.

    This Handbook showcases feminist family scholarship and provides both a retrospective and a prospective overview of the field by creating a scholarly forum for provocative feminist work. The outstanding contributions gathered here reveal feminism's dynamic influence and continuing potential to challenge the field of family studies, through revisioning the family in all its internal and contextual relationships and enacting feminist principles in scholarship and practice. Simultaneously, these contributions push feminist scholarship to reincorporate “families” as a central location of both oppression and resistance, agency and restriction. They remind us often that families, as sites of contradiction and tension, are profound in their enactment of both love and trauma. For many of us, despite their complex, politicized structures, families are where our hearts and deepest hopes lie.


    Our goals in creating this Handbook were to provide a resource for researchers and professionals on the major theoretical, methodological, and applied advances in feminism and family studies and to publish innovative contributions that fully integrate feminist theories, methods, and praxis across a range of topics in the family field. The chapters in this Handbook provide the most current theorizing and practice in feminist family studies. Across the chapters, there are common goals:

    • To elucidate the impact of feminism on the field of family studies as a whole, including the many ways that feminism has catalyzed a broadly inclusive understanding of family, bringing about a “re-visioning” of families that incorporates multiple voices and perspectives;
    • To center intersectionalities of race, class, gender, sexuality, age, nation, ability, and/or religion as pivotal frameworks for examining interlocking structures of inequality and privilege, both inside families and in the reciprocal relationship between families and institutions, communities, and ideologies;
    • To provide overviews of the most important theories, methodologies, and practices in feminist family studies, paired with concrete examples of how scholars and practitioners actually engage in the “doing” of feminist family studies; and
    • To critique the flaws and gaps within family studies and within feminism as well as the places where the infusion of feminism into family studies has simultaneously created a crisis over deeply held assumptions and been held back from reaching its full potential for creative, contextualized understandings.
    Our Contributors

    In creating this Handbook, we deliberately chose a diversity of feminist scholars, and we view this multiplicity as one of the many strengths of our collective work. Readers familiar with the field of feminist family studies will see both familiar and new names in the list of contributors. We sought authors who might be considered the “grand-mothers” of the field, along with their academic daughters and sons. While the book includes compelling contributions by many veteran scholars, it also showcases the work of new scholars making exciting contributions to the field.

    Ultimately, we sought to include scholars who embody the intersectionality that is so carefully woven into this book—scholars whose lived experiences are both connected to and yet different from the family dynamics and processes that they study. We asked our contributors to incorporate their multiple identities into their work, as we believe that the power of feminism as theory, method, and praxis is its versatile ability to occupy multiple locations—center and margin—all at once. As passionate feminist inquirers in family science, we are not complacent theorists, researchers, or practitioners. Feminism requires us to contemplate how the interactions of identities flow in and out and spill over categories. Throughout these chapters, we invited our contributors to share their reflections and selves as they wrote.

    The Structure of the Handbook

    This Handbook is organized into four major parts. The book begins with an overview of feminist theory and family studies. This first part begins with our introductory chapter tracing the changes in the field that were catalyzed by generative works such as Baber and Allen (1992), Hull, Bell-Scott, and Smith (1982), Sollie and Leslie (1994), Thompson (1992), Thompson and Walker (1995), and Thorne (1982), among others. Here we examine the history of the influence of feminist theory, methods, and praxis on the field of family studies over the past three decades, emphasizing the emergence of concepts such as power, agency, reflexivity, intersectionality, and transnationalism. The introductory chapter continues with an analysis of three critical tasks for a “new feminist family studies”: conceptualizing intersectionality for family studies, reclaiming feminist praxis, and enacting the promise of interdisciplinarity.

    Part I continues with a feminist critique of family studies research, followed by overviews of key arenas of feminist family theory (including racial-ethnic feminisms, queer theory, postmodern perspectives, and transnational intersectionality). These chapters share common features, including an emphasis on the basic tenets and assumptions of each type of feminist theory; an explanation of core concepts such as subjectivity, reflexivity, and intersectionality; the influence of these feminist theories on the discipline of family studies, definitions of family, and core family theories; and contributions of feminist family studies to interdisciplinary knowledge. The chapters in Part I come together as a compilation of the profound impact and potential of feminist theorizing to “remake” the field of family studies. Together they reveal the rich textures of feminist theorizing.

    Part II is titled “Feminist (Re)Visioning of ‘The Family.’” The chapters in this part elucidate how feminist theory and research have fundamentally challenged and enhanced our understanding of “the family” in key areas (reproduction, intimate relationships, parenting, adolescence, family and work, communities, and aging). What makes these analyses unique is the emphasis on critical intersections (e.g., of race, class, culture, sexual orientation) with family developmental frameworks, as the authors of these chapters share how feminist scholars have wrestled with defining and studying intersectionality in familial contexts. They also push us toward a renewed emphasis on the ways in which subjectivities and locations multiplicatively influence behavior and life trajectories and how family members subvert notions of the “traditional family” into spaces of creative adaptation. This part illuminates how each substantive area is understood from a feminist perspective and how feminism has catalyzed new theoretical and methodological developments.

    Part III,“Feminist Theory Into Methodology,” provides concrete examples of the enactment of feminist research methodologies (including narrative interviews, autoethnography, Internet methods, historical methods, theoretical reanalysis). These chapters share common features, the most important of which is their emphasis on “doing” feminist family studies research. Here, scholars demonstrate how they have translated feminist theory into methodology, explain links of feminist epistemology with theory and method, discuss the basic tenets of their “feminist methodologies,” and elucidate the strengths and challenges of conducting feminist research within the field of family studies. Each chapter in this part contains an example of a specific research project that used both feminist theory and feminist methods as well as a discussion of the researcher's positionality and subjectivity and its interface with feminist methodology.

    Part IV is titled “Feminist Theory Into Action.” Here, authors explore their everyday lived experience of enacting their feminist visions. One of the consistently driving forces of feminism in family studies is its association with passionate inquiry and action. Feminism is all about vision—having a vision for the individuals and families we study and the groups to which we belong, a vision that is centered on a desire for and advocacy of justice and social change. The chapters in this part are centered on the subjectivity of the scholar, for they elucidate the ways these authors translate theory into action through their advocacy, policy, and leadership work. The chapters share common features of border spanning (both figurative and geographic), praxis (translating theory into action), what it means to be a feminist professional, and the dialectical tensions inherent in the translation of feminist theory into policy and activism.

    Bringing this Handbook to fruition has been a profoundly collaborative and inspirational experience for us all. We stand on the shoulders of those early, pivotal feminists in our field who opened so many doors for us, and we stand in awe of the new feminist scholars who are challenging so many “sacred” aspects of the field of family studies, which is still quite conservative in its viewpoints. In these chapters, we collectively seek to bring our whole selves to the academic enterprise of feminist family studies. We hope that this book will be a source of both celebration and controversy, allowing those in the field of feminist family studies to understand just how far we have come, to spark new disagreements that spur creative conflict, and to be inspired to push the field in directions that cannot yet be imagined.

    Baber, K. M., & Allen, K. R. (1992). Women & families: Feminist reconstructions. New York: Guilford Press.
    Hull, G. T., Bell-Scott, P., & Smith, B. (Eds.). (1982). All the women are White, all the Blacks are men, but some of us are brave: Black women's studies. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press.
    Sollie, D. L., & Leslie, L. A. (Eds.). (1994). Gender, families and close relationships: Feminist research journeys. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Thompson, L.Feminist methodology for family studies. Journal of Marriage and the Family543–18. (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353271
    Thompson, L., Walker, A. J.The place of feminism in family studies. Journal of Marriage and the Family57847–865. (1995). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353407
    Thorne, B. (with Yalom, M.). (Ed.). (1982). Rethinking the family: Some feminist questions. New York: Longman.

    The processes of conceptualizing, inviting, writing, editing, and completing this Handbook have been imbued with creativity, commitment, and caring. Through these processes, we felt deeply what it means to collaborate as feminist scholar-practitioners around epistemologies, methodologies, and praxes. As editors, we joined an amazing group of 40 authors to share with our readers the enactment of an array of feminist perspectives.

    Our first and most important acknowledgements go to each of the scholars who contributed to this volume. We thank you for sharing your expertise, for telling your stories, for incorporating our editorial input, and for providing such provocative insights. Each contribution to this volume portrays the profound impact of feminism within family studies as well as its potential to re-vision and remake the field. Thank you for the excellent chapters that comprise this Handbook.

    We express our gratitude to our feminist mentors, colleagues, students, and organizations. The Feminism and Family Studies section of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) is the inspiration for and energy behind much of the scholarship generated in the Handbook. For more than two decades, this group continues to provide an organizational structure in which feminist family scholars translate theory and research into action, changing scholarship on families and the discipline of family studies. We thank our own feminist teachers and students, as well, for all that you have taught us and asked of us. Sharing this burning desire for feminist knowledge, you have made the Handbook possible.

    We thank our respective universities for their support. Sally was granted a research leave from Miami University to support her work on this project, and she enjoyed the camaraderie of terrific students and colleagues throughout the process. April and Katherine appreciate their colleagues and students at Virginia Tech for providing the kind of learning environment that inspires, requires, and sustains feminist thinking and teaching.

    Our sincere thanks go to the editorial staff at SAGE Publications. This book began as a conversation at NCFR with Jim Brace-Thompson, who first encouraged us to think about its creation. It continued with the wonderful support of Cheri Dellilo, who mentored us through prospectus development and advocated for our proposal at SAGE. Sarita Sarak, editorial assistant, and Brittany Bauhaus, production editor, provided terrific support at SAGE (sorry for all those e-mail questions!), and Erik Evans provided key assistance during the production phase. We thank you all for helping this Handbook come alive.

    We are deeply grateful to our families, partners, and closest friends, those with whom we share our daily lives. Their support throughout the process was unbelievably patient and understanding. Our desire to study families and to work for justice and social change on behalf of all families is central to our entry into feminist family studies. Our own families continue to offer us opportunities to reflect deeply on our motivations for the family scholarship in which we engage and the theoretical, empirical, and practical outcomes we provide. Families are what sustain us and families are what challenge us. We thank our own families for helping us keep it real.

    Finally, we thank each other. What an amazing, synergistic, supportive experience this collaboration has been. We acknowledge our deep respect for each other and, once again, marvel at the way that feminist work changes our lives and our perspectives, profoundly.

    SAGE Publications and the editors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Deborah Abston, Arizona State University at the Downtown Phoenix Campus
    • Jeanne Armstrong, Western Washington University
    • Mary Cassner, University of Nebraska–Lincoln
    • Laurie Cohen, University of Pittsburgh
    • Kathryn Crowe, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
    • Carrie Donovan, Indiana University–Bloomington
    • Nancy Down, Bowling Green State University
    • Janice Dysart, University of Missouri–Columbia
    • Joseph Floyd, University of South Florida Library: Tampa Campus
    • Renoir Gaither, University of Michigan
    • Brenda Yates Habich, Ball State University
    • N. Sue Hanson, Case Western Reserve University
    • Doris Small Helfer, California State University Northridge
    • Leta Hendricks, Ohio State University
    • Kathy Herrlich, Northeastern University
    • Clement Ho, American University Library
    • Mary Lee Jensen, Kent State University
    • Connie Lamb, Brigham Young University
    • Yelena Luckert, University of Maryland
    • Kathy McGowan, University of Rochester
    • Sally Moffitt, University of Cincinnati
    • Carol A. Rudisell, University of Delaware Library
    • Nancy B. Ryckman, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
    • Vanette Schwartz, Illinois State University
    • Gary Treadway, University of Virginia Library
    • Nancy Turner-Myers, University of Missouri–Columbia
  • Epilogue

    In this Handbook, the authors have sought to do several things in dialogue with one another, multiple bodies of literature, the editors, and the interdisciplinary audience who consider old and new concepts about family and community in different ways. They have carefully, yet boldly, demonstrated six characteristics of doing feminist family studies:

    1. Families transcend ties of sanguinity, embodying different structural constellations. Due to changes in law, social policies, and reproductive technologies, families are defined by more than a biological relationship (Demo, Allen, & Fine, 2000). Some families are formed by reconfigurations of kinship (e.g., foster care, divorce, remarriage, grandparents caring for grandchildren, extended kin caring for nephews and nieces, tribal community relationships), a sense of belonging and commonality (e.g., GLBT communities and “houses,” friendships, gangs), love relationships (e.g., gay and lesbian civil unions, cohabitors), and family transitions (e.g., sibling families, younger siblings taking care of older siblings, single-parent households).

    2. Family power is dynamic and operates both hierarchally and vertically among family members and kinship networks across time (Kranichfeld, 1987; Sprey, 1999). Family power is the ability of individual members to change behavior, thought, and affect of other family members (and kin) by virtue of an asymmetrical- based family system. In other words, family power exists because of one's relationship to others, not merely because of one's personal attributes or characteristics. Family power may also change over the course of time due to life transitions (e.g., marriage, divorce, death, moving away from family unit) or life events (e.g., incapacitation, accident, illness, aging).

    3. Family bonds exist, change, and are sustained across spatial, linguistic, cultural, and emotional geographies. For example, there are families spread across the globe because of employment, education, or parenting responsibilities but maintain close, emotional ties among members via information and communication technologies (e.g., Internet blogs, Web site social networking such as MySpace and Facebook, cell phones, instant messaging with Web cameras) (Wilding, 2006). In the spatial divides of land and water, members of transnational and immigrant families face challenges of negotiating and redefining their roles, responsibilities, and emotional/intimate relationships with one another (Salazar Parrenas, 2008). Additionally, as family scholars acknowledge our fluid, inextricable borders and economies with the rest of the world, we observe that studies on immigration, transnationalism, and multiculturalism increasingly have entered mainstream family studies (Parker, 2005; Skrbis, 2008).

    4. The politics of location are discursively engaged consciously and subconsciously at multiple levels—intrapsychically, interpersonally, and globally—simultaneously (Crenshaw, 1993; Few, 2007; Moya, 2006; Sanchez, 2006). Identity is about situatedness in motion in concert with and discordant to the discourses of cultural or political majorities. Individuals make decisions based on their explicit and implicit understandings of social relationality—that is, an understanding of how one is socially located (e.g., social status) in comparison with others at the individual, group, and global levels.

    5. Feminist family studies is more than integrating the literatures of two disciplines but involves the work of doing transformative, self- reflexive praxis within and beyond the safety of the ivory tower in strategic ways so as to validate the different paths of feminist family studies scholar-practitioners. One of the most provocative aspects of this Handbook is that the editors and chapter authors invite the readers to contemplate and question the authenticity of feminist/womanist identities, the theoretical and empirical rigor in feminist methodologies, and the extent of faithfulness toward the feminist goal of empowering the lives of those who are researched. From time to time, feminist family scholars conduct a reality check as to the viability of feminism/womanism or feminist family studies by asking, “What does it mean to be a feminist family scholar” today? (Hull, Bell-Scott, & Smith, 1982; Thompson & Walker, 1995; Walker & Thompson, 1984; Wiegman, 2002; Wills & Risman, 2006).

    6. Feminist family studies scholarship must be built continually in such a way that scholar- practitioners do not “speak” past one another, thus avoiding semiotic dissonance in our family science discourses while at the same time embracing dialogic ontological and epistemological pluralism (Abend, 2008). Ontological and epistemological pluralism allows a discursive intellectual space for family scholars to consider multiple perspectives when examining and explaining the issues we study. One specific discourse is not privileged over another in an effort to advance our theorizing about family process. Having multiple perspectives does not mean that we preclude sharing the same understandings of what is meant by theory, fundamental concepts, or statistical inferences.

    In this Handbook, feminist family studies and the identities of feminist family studies scholars are grappled with through the critical analyses of family processes across the life span, revisionist exercises in feminist theorizations about families, and the processes involved in feminist research methodologies. This Handbook finds itself sitting at a pivotal point in family studies wherein family scholars can reflect back on the pioneering work of our disciplinary feminist/womanist foremothers, can acknowledge what is being done now to sustain a viable feminist family studies, and can dare to envision a future for feminist family studies that is cohesive despite its kaleidoscopic multiplicity of perspectives.

    How We Embody the Process of Writing and Living Feminist Family Studies

    As I (April) reflect on the process of writing this Handbook with two remarkable women—my mentors and sisters—I am emboldened with a new sense of commitment and energy for the type of praxis that reflects my own feminist/womanist sensibilities and integrates the best of what I have learned from others who also walk a similar precarious path. Doing feminist family studies is something that, once it gets under your skin, becomes a part of your blood and your soul, inextricable from all social relationships and experiences that I engage and write. I first became a Black feminist, with one foot in womanism, in the arms of two Black feminist woman scholars, Patricia Bell-Scott and Juanita Johnson Bailey, who taught me how to think critically about people who lived and looked like me and about the power of social relationality in families, communities, and the world. They gave me books written by women scholars of color to read and invited me to rearticulate my own sense of Black or Afrocentric consciousness in my pedagogy, research, and activism. This Handbook project has been a remarkable journey for me as the “junior” faculty member in the group. I have been challenged intellectually and emotionally by Sally and Katherine in so many ways. I stand back from it all and marvel at their ability to push me and others to think further outside the box, into the great unknown. I had the wonderful opportunity to see how fearless these women warriors are, subtly and overtly. I am grateful to both of them for asking me to join them in this unique journey as well as the chapter authors who worked diligently with me until we got to a place that was “safe,”“sound,” and agreeable to all (at least most of the time).

    When Sally first approached me about joining her in working on this project, I (Katherine) had no idea what was in store. I was unprepared to find my own ways of thinking about and experiencing feminism so challenged by new literatures, new scholars, and new points of view. Whatever lip service I've been paying to multivocality in feminist scholarship and difference in women's lived experience was surely challenged by having my own deeply held convictions, rooted in the blinders of personal experience, upended. I could hear my inner voice saying, What do you mean, Sisterhood isn't powerful? I'm a White woman and I think it is! At the same time, it was also disorienting to realize that feminist ideas had infiltrated academic disciplines in watered down or appropriated ways. My binary thinking—that there was this problem with patriarchy, and we (all women) had to put aside our differences and fix it—just wasn't working anymore. Faced with a choice— withdraw from feminism or learn new ways of engaging feminist thinking and practice—I decided to cast my vote in favor of the radical potential of feminist scholarship to inspire change in the academy and in people's lives. A bit shaky, I jumped in. I'm so glad Sally and April were already there, demonstrating in their praxis that as we make room for new voices in feminist family scholarship, we will honor where we've been lest others forget.

    The work of conceptualizing, writing, and editing a handbook with my two brilliant collaborators—Sally and April— and all our authors has been invigorating in every way. In the papers gathered for this collection, there are multiple examples of a great respect for the challenges and resilience of women and families, domestically and globally, from perspectives that decenter the mythical norm so central in our mainstream discipline. Our authors share a commitment to scholarship with the potential to change the direction of the field as well as people's minds. All three of the editors read and provided feedback on the chapters, and we were inspired by the care with which our authors attended to our critiques. We believe that these chapters reveal the best of feminist family scholarship. Now that April, Sally, and I have come to the epilogue, I marvel at the ways in which feminist-inspired knowledge, wisdom, and practice are alive in our field.

    For me (Sally), sharing my reflections in this Handbook is a delightful undertaking, as it allows me to tell all our readers of my deep admiration and respect for April and Katherine. Working together has been an incredible experience. The three of us have known each other for many years but never had the opportunity to collaborate on such a large project until we came together for this one. Even though feminism is my worldview and homeplace (as Katherine so eloquently wrote in Allen, 2001), for me these are difficult and contested spaces. The first thing that readers might think about such a statement is that I am referring to the contested place of feminism in the academy. However, I am referring more to my own internal sense of contestation— both the visions of feminism and the demands of feminist theory are challenging to “live up to.” Given the blossoming of feminist theories across so many disciplines, it is difficult if not impossible to keep up with new ideas and developments. Both the core and the boundaries of feminist theory seem to be constantly shifting— and what I thought I understood is always being transformed by the insights provided by feminist writers from around the globe, and by queer, critical race, postmodern perspectives, and transnational theoretical developments. Sometimes I envy those who have chosen as their “academic home” a nice, tightly packaged theory that is firmly rooted in a single discipline, but this envy is usually momentary, for I want to stay with my feminist sisters, even if it means my brain gets pushed around.

    This is why the process of working on this Handbook, with my superb coeditors, has been so important to me. It is very difficult to convey all the wonderful things that happened along the way of our 3 years working together, first on the special issue of the Journal of Family Issues and then on this edited book (this is where being an academic writer is a hindrance, for this is a time when skills in writing poetry and literature would be helpful). Synergy seems to be the word that comes up for me the most. I cannot even count how many times, when talking on the phone together or sending e-mails back and forth, that I had that tingling sense of insight—that terrific feeling that happens when things come together and you have a new way of seeing things. Perhaps, this idea of “a new way of seeing things” is what best characterizes my experience on this project. I learned so much from Katherine and April—the most important of which was how to dig deeper into what I thought I already knew about feminism and family studies. It is an unparalleled experience to be able to work with two such renowned scholars and have access to their incredible intellect and creativity. I can't tell you how many times I would receive their editorial feedback on a chapter and be in awe of their critique (they always saw things that I did not—and hopefully the joining of our three perspectives strengthened the feedback provided to help each author in the revision process) or how many times in a conversation they mentioned a chapter or article that I ran out to acquire because I knew that it would take me to a new place in my own intellectual journey. And, writing together was an equally compelling experience—we'd talk, then write, then talk and spark new ideas, and then write some more, and we know that the writing we did together reflected something unique, something that we could not have done alone. When we started this project, we were colleagues; over time, we became sisters and friends.

    I also learned incredible things from each of the chapter authors—new theoretical insights, new methodologies, new ways of enacting our feminist praxis. I learned something unique and exciting from every single chapter (and I now have a rather long reading list culled from the references of these 27 chapters, as I found myself going down the references and thinking, oh, I need to read this one, and this one, and this one). And from the collective, I learned that our field of feminist family studies is alive and well, continuing to push the assumptions and boundaries of family studies, and working tirelessly for our feminist visions of equity and social justice.

    Finally, as editors, we three appreciate the process of collaboration with each other, with our authors, and with those who will read and use this book. We want this Handbook to provide a synergistic way of seeing feminist family studies. We want to inspire others, like we have been inspired, to use the resources it contains to explore the new landscape of scholarship and praxis in our interdisciplinary field. We acknowledge that there are privileges we enjoy as feminist academics—spaces to learn, write, and act on behalf of our convictions—and with those privileges come responsibilities. We offer this book in the service of the privilege and responsibility to learn, write, and act on behalf of changing our parts of the world for the better.

    April L.Few, Katherine R.Allen, Sally A.Lloyd
    Abend, G.The meaning of theory. Sociological Theory26173–199. (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2008.00324.x
    Allen, K. R.Feminist visions for transforming families: Desire and equality then and now. Journal of Family Issues22791–809. (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251301022006007
    Crenshaw, K. (1993). Demarginalizing the interaction of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and anti-racist politics. In D. Weisberg (Ed.), Feminist legal theory: Foundations (pp. 383–411). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Demo, D. H., Allen, K. R., & Fine, M. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of family diversity. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Few, A. L.Integrating black consciousness and critical race feminism into family studies research. Journal of Family Issues28452–473. (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X06297330
    Hull, G. T., Bell-Scott, P. B., & Smith, B. (Eds). (1982). All the women are White, all the Blacks are men, but some of us are brave: Black women's studies. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press.
    Kranichfeld, M. L.Rethinking family power. Journal of Family Issues842–56. (1987). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251387008001002
    Moya, P. M. L. (2006). What's identity got to do with it? Mobilizing identities in the multicultural classroom. In S. P. Mohanty, L. M. Alcoff, M. Hames-Garcia, & P. M. L. Moya (Eds.), Identity politics reconsidered (pp. 96–117). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Parker, M.Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Journal of Comparative Family Studies36159–161. (2005).
    Salazar Parrenas, R.Transnational fathering: Gendered conflicts, distant disciplining and emotional gaps. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies34(7)1057–1072. (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830802230356
    Sanchez, R. (2006). On critical realist theory of identity. In L. M. Alcoff, M. Hames-García, S. P. Mohanty, & P. M. L. Moya (Eds.), Identity politics reconsidered (pp. 31–52). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Skrbis, Z.Transnational families: Theorising migration, emotions and belonging. Journal of Intercultural Studies29231–246. (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07256860802169188
    Sprey, J. (1999). Family dynamics: An essay on conflict and power. In M. B. Sussman, S. K. Steinmetz, & G. W. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (2nd ed., pp. 667–685). New York: Plenum Press.
    Thompson, L., Walker, A. J.The place of feminism in family studies. Journal of Marriage and the Family57847–865. (1995). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353407
    Walker, A. J., Thompson, L.Feminism and family studies. Journal of Family Issues5545–570. (1984). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251384005004010
    Wiegman, R.Academic feminism against itself. NWSA Journal14(2)18–37. (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/NWS.2002.14.2.18
    Wilding, R.“Virtual” intimacies? Families communicating across transnational contexts. Global Networks6(2)125–142. (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00137.x
    Wills, J. B., Risman, B. J.The visibility of feminist thought in family studies. Journal of Marriage and Family68690–700. (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00283.x

    Author Index

    About the Editors

    Sally A. Lloyd is Professor of Women's Studies and Educational Leadership at Miami University. Her scholarship examines violence against women by their intimate partners, with particular emphasis on women's agency in the face of violence, how women construct meaning around and make sense of intimate violence, and how discourses of intimacy and violence serve to justify male aggression and encourage women to “forgive and forget” abusive behavior. Her previous books include The Dark Side of Courtship: Physical and Sexual Aggression (coauthored with Beth Emery), Family Violence From a Communication Perspective (coedited with Dudley Cahn), and Courtship (coauthored with Rodney Cate). Her scholarly work also includes numerous coauthored journal articles and chapters on violence against women, published in journals and books such as Journal of Family Issues, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Family Relations, Sex Roles, and Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research. She has served as an associate editor for Journal of Personal and Social Relationships and has also served on the editorial boards of Family Relations, Journal of Family Issues, and Personal Relationships. While at Miami University, she has been an administrator for most of the past 19 years, serving as a department chair, director of Women's Studies, associate dean, interim dean, and interim associate vice president for institutional diversity. She received her PhD in family studies from Oregon State University.

    April L. Few is Associate Professor of Family Studies in the Department of Human Development at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Her research interests include the topics of intimate violence, African American adolescent sexuality, qualitative methodologies, rural women's reentry experiences, and diversity issues in academia. She is the Diversity Fellow of the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and presently serves on the National Council on Family Relations Board of Directors. She is the 2004 recipient of the Jessie Bernard Outstanding Contribution to Feminist Scholarship paper award from the Feminism and Family Studies section and the 2000 Outstanding Student-Originated Contribution to Family Research and Theory paper award from the Family and Health section of the National Council on Family Relations. Her scholarship on the utility of Black feminist and critical race theories has resulted in plenary invitations at national conferences and a coauthored book chapter on multicultural feminism and family studies in the Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research (2005). She has also contributed chapters in books that focus on the experiences of women of color, such as Violence in the Lives of Black Women and the upcoming Benefiting by Design: Women of Color in Feminist Psychological Research. Additionally, she has published in the Journal of Family Issues, Violence and Victims, Family Relations, Family Process, Sex Roles, Sexuality and Culture, National Women's Studies Association Journal, and Criminal Justice Policy and Research Journal.

    Katherine R. Allen is Professor of Human Development at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She is also a faculty affiliate in the Center for Gerontology and the Women's Studies Program. She has written extensively about family diversity and the integration of theory, research, and praxis in feminist family studies, and published her work in journals such as Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Family Issues, Family Relations, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Review of Educational Research, and Journal of Men's Studies. Her current research includes investigations of hidden family ties in extended kin relations, sexuality over the life course, and perspectives on gender, aging, and sexuality. Known for her expertise in family diversity over the life course, qualitative research methods, feminist pedagogy, and social justice work in the family field, she has received college and university awards for scholarship, teaching, diversity, and advising as well as the 1997 Ernest Osborne Award for Excellence in Teaching and the Anselm Strauss Award for the Outstanding Qualitative Research Article of 2005, both given by the National Council on Family Relations. She is the coeditor of Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research (2005) and Handbook of Family Diversity (2000), the coauthor of Women and Families: Feminist Reconstructions (1992), and the author of Single Women/Family Ties: Life Histories of Older Women (1989).

    About the Contributors

    Michele Adams is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, where her work focuses on families, gender, and culture. Her research has been published in scholarly journals such as Journal of Family Issues, Family Law Quarterly, Family Relations, Sex Roles, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Applied Behavioral Science Review, as well as in book chapters in Contemporary Parenting, Gender Mosaics, The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, and Working Families. She is coauthor (with Scott Coltrane) of Gender & Families, second edition. Her current projects include a continuing focus on marriage and divorce from the 19th century through the present and investigation of modern dating strategies and trends in the United States.

    Elaine A. Anderson is Professor and Chair of Family Science at the University of Maryland, College Park, and codirector and founder of the Maryland Family Policy Impact Seminar. A former Congressional Science Fellow, her research focuses on family and health policy issues, at-risk families, rural families, and fathering. She has conducted policy analysis/research for the United States Senate, multiple state legislatures, and several presidential campaigns. She has edited three family policy books, of which two focus on family policy educational curricula. Recent publications include “Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons From the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act” (with J. Liechty) in Family Relations (2007) and “Implications of China's Open Door Policy for Families” (with A. S. Quach) in Journal of Family Issues (2008). She serves on numerous journal editorial boards, including Family Relations, Journal of Family Issues, and Journal of Family and Economic Issues. She has received several prestigious awards, including Fellow in the National Council on Family Relations and the Distinguished Service Award given by The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. She has also received from her university college the outstanding teaching, mentor, and research awards.

    Kristine M. Baber is an associate professor in the Department of Family Studies and a core faculty member in women's studies at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). She also is the founding Director of the UNH Center on Adolescence, which provides education, training, and research capacity to support the well-being of adolescents and their families. She is one of the coauthors of New Hampshire's strategic plan for adolescent health—an example of her commitment to putting theory and research into practice. In 2004, she was named one of the first Outreach Scholars at UNH. Her current research focuses on girls' health and sexuality issues. Over the past 15 years, she has authored or coauthored a variety of publications, including a book, book chapters, and articles, exploring the utility of postmodern feminist theory for studying women and families. She received her PhD in family studies from the University of Connecticut.

    Sundari Balan is a doctoral candidate in psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Her interests are in the areas of gender and motherhood, immigration work, and mental health. Her dissertation looks at expectations for being “good Asian Indian working moms” examining motherhood, work, resilience, and mental health among immigrant Asian Indian employed mothers in the United States. She coauthored “Culture, Son Preference and Beliefs About Masculinity” in the Journal of Research on Adolescence with Ram Mahalingam. She also wrote a chapter titled “Cultural Psychology and Marginality: Exploring the Immigrant Psychology of Indian Diaspora” with Ram Mahalingam and Cheri Philips, published in Cultural Psychology of Immigrants in 2006 (edited by R. Mahalingam).

    Dana Berkowitz is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and the program in women's and gender studies at Louisiana State University. She is a feminist sociologist with a broad interest in the social construction of gender, sexualities, and families. Her dissertation research is a qualitative analysis of gay men's reproductive decision-making and fathering experiences. Currently, she is engaged in an analysis of gay men's procreative and fathering narratives that emerge as a result of reigning heteropatriarchal patterns. Her research in this area has appeared in Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of GLBT Family Studies, and Qualitative Sociology. She is an active member of the Feminism and Family section of the National Council of Family Relations and her manuscript “Maternal Urges, Biological Clocks, and Soccer Moms: Toward a Theory of Gay Men's Procreative Consciousness and Fathering Experiences” is the 2008 recipient of their Jesse Bernard Outstanding Research Paper Award.

    Libby Balter Blume is Professor of Psychology, Women's and Gender Studies, and Architecture and Director of Developmental Psychology, Certified Family Life Education, and Community Development at the University of Detroit Mercy. She is founding editor of Michigan Family Review, book review editor for Journal of Family Theory and Review, and coauthor of two child development textbooks. Her current interests are feminist theory and praxis in family studies and dialectical approaches to studying family-level coconstructions of gender and ethnicity. Her publications include “Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality” in Journal of Marriage and Family (2003) and two coauthored chapters in the Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research (2005), “Multicultural and Critical Race Feminisms: Theorizing Families in the Third Wave” and “Decentering Heteronormativity: A Model for Family Studies.”She recently coauthored a chapter on the social construction of White ethnic identities in the book Strengths and Challenges of New Immigrant Families: Implications for Research, Policy, Education, and Service (2008) and coedited a special collection on transnational families for Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies.

    Donna Hendrickson Christensen is Professor Emerita of Family Studies and Human Development in the Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences at the University of Arizona. Her current research interests include the role of the marital relationship in the development of emotional competence in preschool children, the influence of gender on parenting relationships, and the effects of stress, coping, and adjustment on family relationships following divorce.

    Amy Claxton is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology Program at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Her areas of interest include social class, the intersection of social contexts, and marital relationships. Her dissertation investigates the function of social class indicators (income, education, and job prestige) within the working class and their implications for mental health. She recently published an article titled “No Fun Anymore: Leisure and Marital Quality Across the Transition to Parenthood” in the Journal of Marriage and Family.

    Ingrid Arnet Connidis is a professor of sociology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Western Ontario. Her work in the areas of family ties across the life course, adult sibling relationships, intergenerational relations, aging and policy implications, and conceptual and methodological issues in research on aging has been published in a variety of books and journals, including the Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Journal of Marriage and Family, Canadian Journal on Aging, The Gerontologist, and Research on Aging. She is corecipient of the 2004 Richard Kalish Innovative Publication Award presented by the Behavioral and Social Science Section of the Gerontological Society of America for an article published in Journal of Marriage and Family (“Sociological Ambivalence and Family Ties: A Critical Perspective”with Julie Ann McMullin, 2002:64:558–567). Her current research focuses on family ties in mid- and late life, including siblings, gay and lesbian family members, and step-ties. Analysis of data from a qualitative study of multigenerational families is an ongoing pursuit. The second edition of her book Family Ties & Aging will appear in 2009.

    Manijeh Daneshpour is Professor and Director of the Marriage and Family Therapy Program at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota. She is the president of the Minnesota Board of Marriage and Family Therapy and previously has served as a membership chair for the Minnesota Association for Marriage and Family Therapists. She is from Iran and identifies herself as a Muslim feminist. She has conducted research related to lives of multicultural couples, especially Muslim couples and their struggles once they come to the United States. She works with multicultural families and has published articles and has made many presentations related to this topic. Her research interests and her publications are also in the areas of diversity, social justice, Muslim feminism, and the impact of trauma on family functioning.

    Anindita Das is a research associate at the Department of Educational Leadership, Foundations and Policy at the University of Virginia's Curry School of Education. She is a PhD candidate at the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Texas Tech University. Her research interests are in the broad area of immigrant identity, more particularly, the ways in which adolescents/young adults of immigrant parents negotiate multiple identities within particular contexts, as they explore, create, and revise their identities. For her dissertation, she drew on in-depth interviews to explore how these privileged second generation children have been placed into the dynamics of American society and the complexity of Indian society and transformed into the unique situation of being second generation. Thus, the discourses of identity produced in her study analyze how many second-generation Asian Indian college students deal with the profound contradiction of acknowledging their otherness and difference on one level and yet are willing to background their cultural differences. She also has a bachelor's and a master's degree in sociology from India.

    Lee Ann De Reus is an associate professor of human development and family studies and women studies at Pennsylvania State University Altoona. Her research interests include feminist theory construction and women's ethnic identity development. Representative publications include “Multicultural and Critical Race Feminisms: Theorizing Families in the Third Wave” (with Libby Balter Blume and April Few) in the Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research (2005) and “Transnational Families and the Social Construction of Identity: Whiteness Matters”(with Libby Balter Blume), in the book Strengths and Challenges of New Immigrant Families: Implications for Research, Policy, Education, and Service. Most recently, she and Blume coedited a special collection on transnational families for Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. As an activist scholar, she leads annual international student service learning trips to Tanzania and the Dominican Republic. In 2007, she traveled to the Gaga refugee camp in Chad, where she collected stories of female Sudanese genocide survivors for awareness-raising presentations in the United States. Outside the academy, she is the founder of Bitches Without Borders and cofounder of Save Darfur: Central Pennsylvania.

    Nafissatou J. Diop works for the Population Council's Reproductive Health program based in Senegal, implementing and monitoring operations research studies of reproductive health programs and services in West Africa, and in particular, studies on female genital cutting, adolescents, and maternal health. She provides technical assistance and capacity building to the ministries of health of several West African countries and to national NGOs. She joined the council in 1996. Her recent research has focused on testing strategies to improve adolescent reproductive health in the northern regions of Senegal. In southern Senegal and Burkina Faso she has also tested the effectiveness of the Village Empowerment Program developed by TOSTAN, an NGO that is using an integrated approach of human rights, health, hygiene, and problem solving to involve the community in the decision to abandon the practices of female genital cutting and early marriage. Currently, she is working on a postabortion care assessment in West Africa and female condom strategic planning for Francophone countries. She has a PhD in demography from the University of Montreal, a DEA in the socioeconomics of development, and a master's in sociology from the University of Nanterre, Paris, France.

    Beth C. Emery is Professor of Child Development and Family Studies in the Department of Human Sciences at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU). She is the coordinator of the Family and Consumer Studies undergraduate program and a member of the Women's Studies Program at MTSU. She teaches family studies and experiential learning courses, and her interests include qualitative and feminist methodology, attitudes toward feminism, and the impact of sexual aggression on young women. Her research has focused on intimate partner violence, specifically physical and sexual aggression in dating relationships. She coauthored several book chapters and the book The Dark Side of Courtship (2000) with Sally Lloyd and coauthored articles with Heather Kettrey on sibling violence and media as an information source on dating violence.

    Abbie E. Goldberg is an assistant professor of psychology at Clark University. Her main research interests are in the area of family diversity, work-family issues, lesbian/gay parenthood, adoption, and gender. She recently completed a longitudinal study on lesbian couples' transition to biological parenthood, which explored changes in lesbian mothers' social support, mental health, relationship quality, and the division of paid and unpaid labor across the transition to parenthood. Her most recent research focuses on heterosexual, lesbian, and gay couples' transition to adoptive parenthood. Her work has appeared in a number of journals, including Journal of Marriage and Family, Family Relations, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, and Journal of Family Psychology. She is the author of Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children: Research on the Family Life Cycle. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

    Masako Ishii-Kuntz is Professor of Social Sciences and Family Studies Department at Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan. After teaching at the University of California, Riverside for 20 years, she returned to Japan in 2006 to pursue her feminist research on Japanese fathers and teaching at the oldest women's college in Japan. Recent research projects include examining class-based patterns of paternal involvement in Japan, long-term effects of paternal involvement on children's social development, and the use of Internet and cell phone technologies in fathering practices. Since her return to Japan, she has been actively involved in advising the governmental committees to facilitate work-life balance among employed women and men. She is also an elected board member of the Japan Society of Family Sociology in which her efforts have centered on increasing the presence of Japanese scholars in overseas international conferences. Her new book, Writing, Presenting and Publishing Social Scientific Research Papers in English, is dedicated to this end. Based on her research expertise, she was invited to participate in the 2008 United Nations' Expert Group Meeting that proposed policies aiming at the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men worldwide.

    Christine E. Kaestle is an assistant professor in human development and a faculty affiliate in the Women's Studies Program at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She is a health behaviorist specializing in risk behaviors during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Her work uses a life course perspective to examine the intersection of sexual behaviors, aggression and violence, substance abuse, and the media as they influence health outcomes during this critical period of development. Her recent research examines gene-environment contributions to health behaviors. She teaches research methods, gender and family diversity, and human sexuality at Virginia Tech. Her publications include articles in American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Adolescent Health, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, and Prevention Science. She received her MSPH in community health from the University of California–Los Angeles and her PhD in maternal and child health at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

    Suzanne Klatt is a visiting lecturer in family studies and social work and a doctoral candidate in educational leadership (interdisciplinary) at Miami University. She is a licensed independent social worker supervisor (LISW-S). She is interested in feminist theory, the complex aspects of working with children in multidisciplinary environments, mindfulness interventions in the context of social work practice, and community partnership and engagement. She earned a master of social work (MSW) degree from the Ohio State University.

    Katherine A. Kuvalanka is an assistant professor of family studies in the Department of Family Studies and Social Work at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Her primary area of research interest is the experiences of children, youth, and adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents. She has explored how young adults with lesbian mothers coped with heterosexism during adolescence in an effort to identify mechanisms of resilience. Currently, she is using a queer theoretical lens to examine the experiences of “Second Generation” youth (i.e., LGBTQ youth with LGBTQ parents). Having previously served as cochair of the board of directors of COLAGE (a nonprofit organization run by and for individuals with LGBTQ parents), she currently cochairs the COLAGE Research Review Committee, screening requests from researchers and briefing staff on relevant research studies/findings in the field. She also recently joined the editorial board of the Journal of GLBT Family Studies. In 2007, she received her PhD in family studies from the University of Maryland, College Park, where she also earned her MS in family studies with a specialization in marriage and family therapy in 2002.

    Leigh A. Leslie is Associate Professor of Family Science and an adjunct faculty member in women's studies at the University of Maryland at College Park. She is a licensed marriage and family therapist and psychologist and has a private practice in relationship and family issues. Over her research career, gender has been a constant lens through which she has examined questions concerning family functioning, including social support, divorce, and work-family balance, and questions concerning the practice of family therapy. In 1994, she coedited Gender, Families, and Close Relationships: Feminist Research Journeys with Donna Sollie. Her current research focuses on the intersection of gender and race in couple and family relationships. Recent publications include “Biracial Females: Reflections on Racial Identity Development” (with K. Kelch-Oliver) in Journal of Feminist Family Therapy (2006), “Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness” (with N. Forry and B. Letiecq) in Journal of Family Issues (2007), and “Intersectionality and Work-Family Studies” (with Stephen Marks) in American Families: A Multicultural Reader, edited by S. Coontz (2008).

    Edith A. Lewis is an associate professor of social work at the University of Michigan. Her primary research interests are methods used by women of color to offset personal, familial, community, and professional role strain. To date, this has included involvement in studies identifying strengths within African American women's communities, the intersections of gender and ethnicity in the lives of women of color, outcomes of an intervention project for pregnant substance-dependent women, multiple role strains for faculty women of color, multicultural organizational development, isolating the successful methods used by Ghanaian women in community development projects, and the development of the Network Utilization Project intervention to systematically address individual, family, and community concerns. She earned her BA in 1973 and her MSW in 1975, both from the University of Minnesota, and her PhD in 1985 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

    Ana A. Lucero-Liu is currently a program evaluator for Pima Prevention Partnership, a nonprofit organization in Tucson, Arizona. During her time as a graduate student, she minored in Mexican American studies with a focus on Chicanas. Her research interests include family and relationship research, the experiences of Mexican-origin families, and gender in close relationships. She received her doctorate in 2007 from the Department of Family Studies and Human Development in the John and Doris Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences at the University of Arizona, where her dissertation focused on the family relationships of Mexican-origin women.

    Ramaswami (Ram) Mahalingam is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan. Using a social marginality perspective, his research examines the role of essentialism, power, and culture in shaping beliefs about race, caste, ethnicity, and gender. Within this overarching theme, he has conducted three lines of research: (a) implicit theories of social identities using various paradigms designed to elicit beliefs in essential or unchangeable features of various social identities; (b) the relationship between various kinds of gender essentialist beliefs and mental health in caste groups with a history of female infanticide in India; and (c) the mental health consequences of endorsing idealized essentialist beliefs about one's social group (i.e., the “model minority myth” among Asian Americans) for first- and second-generation Asian American men, women, and adolescents in the United States. These areas of work all focus on how essentialist representations of social categories are related to social discrimination and how such construals are influenced by factors such as group status, power, gender, and immigration. He has edited two books (Multicultural Curriculum: New Directions for Social Theory, Practice and Policy, 2000, with Cameron McCarthy; Cultural Psychology of Immigrants, 2006).

    Lori A. McGraw is a research associate and internship coordinator in the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences at Oregon State University. Her areas of interest include feminist theory, qualitative methods, and family care. Her research focuses on how sociocultural ideas and practices shape care- givers' identities and relationships, and how caregivers creatively use sociocultural ideas to construct purposeful lives. She coedited Families in Later Life: Connections and Transitions in Middle and Later Life (2001, with Walker, Manoogian-O'Dell, and White). Her graduate student Hyun-Kyung You recently won the Jessie Bernard Award for Outstanding Proposal From a Feminist Perspective from the National Council on Family Relations for their work on a paper titled, “South Korean and European American Mothers Who Have Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders” (2006, with MacTavish). She herself is a winner of the 2002 Outstanding Contribution to Feminist Scholarship Award in Honor of Jessie Bernard. Finally, she was a top-20 finalist for the 2001 Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for Excellence in Work-Family Research.

    Niveditha Menon graduated from Pennsylvania State University with a doctorate in sociology and demography, with a minor in women's studies. Her primary research interests include the use of agency by women who respond to domestic violence, sexual trafficking, and other forms of violence against women. Her dissertation field research in India focused on the different types of control women experience, and the coping mechanisms that women use in the context of domestic violence. She works as a consultant on gender issues in Hyderabad, India.

    Kristine M. Molina is a doctoral student in the joint PhD program in personality and social contexts psychology and women's studies at the University of Michigan. Her research lies at the intersections of ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality. She is particularly interested in examining how Latina/os conceptualize inequality and discrimination, how they legitimate their particular life circumstances, and how these experiences are related to overall and domain-specific functioning. Her current work examines the various cultural and context-specific dimensions of resilience that enable Latino youth to successfully negotiate their academic demands and career aspirations. She has published on topics relating to women of color, diversity, higher education, the psychology graduate application process, and public speaking anxiety among college women, and has presented at conferences on these and other related topics. She has also received numerous awards, including a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, a Ford Foundation Diversity Predoctoral Fellowship, a NIAAA Diversity Supplement Grant, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Diversity Travel Award, and a National Women's Studies Association Women of Color Essay Award. She earned her BA in psychology from Smith College.

    Ramona Faith Oswald is Associate Professor of Family Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is cofounder (with Batya Hyman) of the National Council on Family Relations' GLBT-Straight Alliance, and a former chair of the NCFR Feminism and Family Studies section. A past recipient of both the Anselm Strauss Award for qualitative research and the Jessie Bernard Award for feminist research, her current work examines how social context shapes the family lives of GLBT people, especially in nonmetropolitan contexts. Recent publications include “Generative Ritual Among Nonmetropolitan Lesbians and Gay Men” (Journal of Marriage and Family, 2008, with Brian Masciadrelli); “Same-Sex Couples, Legal Complexities” (Journal of Family Issues, 2008, with Kate Kuvalanka); and “Social and Moral Commitment Among Same-Sex Couples” (Journal of Family Psychology, 2008, with Kate Kuvalanka, Abbie Goldberg, and Eric Clausell). She is committed to pushing and holding doors open so that our students and junior colleagues can continue to think queerly.

    Maureen Perry-Jenkins is Professor and Division Head in Clinical Psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Her research focuses on the ways in which sociocultural factors, such as race, gender, and social class, shape the mental health and family relationships of employed parents and their children. Her current research involves a 10-year, longitudinal study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health that examines the transition to parenthood and transition back to paid employment for working-class, low-wage couples and for African American, Latina, and European American single mothers. The project examines how risk and resilience factors across these multiple life transitions affect new parents' well-being, relationship quality, and the socioemotional well-being of their children. She is the author of numerous articles and chapters published in Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Family Psychology, and Family Relations. She was a recent recipient of the University of Massachusetts Distinguished Outreach Research Award for her efforts to apply her research to policy.

    Layli D. Phillips is Associate Professor of Women's Studies at Georgia State University and Editor of the The Womanist Reader (2006), which documents the first quarter-century of womanist thought “on its own.” Her current scholarly interests center around applied womanism and spiritual activism, and she has published and taught in the areas of Africana LGBTQIQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Questioning) studies and women and Hip Hop. She continues research and writing on both the scientific activism of Kenneth B. and Mamie P. Clark and the liberation psychology of Ignacio Martin-Baro. Her extracurricular interests include alternative medicine and holistic healing, meditation, mysticism, and spiritual traditions/practices from around the globe, both ancient and contemporary. She received her PhD in Developmental Psychology from Temple University.

    Christine M. Proulx is an assistant professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Missouri (MU). Her research interests focus on the links between interpersonal relationships and individual well-being, with an emphasis on the role of context, gender, and chronic disorders. She is also interested in the study of dyads over time. Her most recent work has focused on the links between marriage and spouses' well-being, particularly depressive symptoms. She is extending that line of inquiry to include couples who are coping with chronic health disorders. Before joining the MU faculty in 2007, she was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Human Ecology at The University of Texas, and received her doctoral degree from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 2006.

    Constance L. Shehan is Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology and Criminology & Law at the University of Florida. Her research and teaching focus on gender, families, work, health, and aging. She is Editor of the Journal of Family Issues. Her most recent book, coauthored with Sara Crawley and Lara Foley, was published in 2007 as part of the Gender Lens series. Its title, Gendering Bodies, reflects her recent work on “the body” in family and gender studies. She has served as Chair of the Feminism and Family Studies section of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) and as Director of the Women's Studies Program at the University of Florida. She is also a fellow of the NCFR. She was a co-PI on a Ford Foundation grant awarded to the Feminist Majority Foundation designed to integrate more academic work into Ms. Magazine.

    Donna L. Sollie is Assistant Provost for Women's Initiatives and Professor of Human Development and Family Studies at Auburn University, where she has served as the director of the Women's Studies Program, as Alumni Professor, and as a member of the President's Commission on the Status of Women and Minorities. As Assistant Provost for Women's Initiatives, she oversees a mentoring and support network program for new women faculty, advises the central administration on retention and advancement of women and minorities, oversees the Women's Resource Center and WISE Institute (the Women in Science and Engineering Institute) Program, and fosters collaborative efforts with groups across campus to address issues that affect women's status and advancement. She has written numerous articles and book chapters on the influences of gender and gender-role orientation on individual and relationship outcomes, including patterns of communication, relationship maintenance, expressive marital behaviors, and relationship satisfaction. She received her PhD in family studies from the University of Tennessee.

    Ashley L. Southard is a licensed couple and family therapist and family researcher. Her areas of interest include eating disorders, feminist couple and family therapy, qualitative research, cultural competence, and mental health policy analysis. She recently conducted research using data collected from clinical couples who experience mild to moderate levels of abuse in their relationship. Her study investigated the degree to which partners' attributions and levels of commitment predict their behaviors during conflict; the manuscript is currently under review. She is also in the process of writing articles from her dissertation, which used feminist theory and qualitative methodologies to explore racial-minority women's experiences with eating disorders within their familial and racial/cultural contexts. Findings from this study have implications for how clinical programs can be culturally sensitive in their efforts to appropriately recruit and treat minority individuals affected by eating disorders. She is an active member in the eating disorder community and currently serves as a founding board member for the Eating Disorder Network of Central Maryland and the Binge Eating Disorder Association. She received her PhD from the University of Maryland at College Park.

    Dionne P. Stephens is an assistant professor with a joint appointment in the Department of Psychology and African New World Studies at Florida International University (FIU). Her research examines sociohistorical factors shaping minority populations' sexual scripting and sexual health processes, with emphasis on gender and ethnic/racial identity development. She is author of several articles on scripting processes, sexual health, and theoretical paradigm issues related to racial/ethnic minority- focused research. A popular, award-winning teacher, she is a recipient of both the Blackboard International Online Program's Greenhouse Exemplary Course Award and the University of Georgia's Gwendolyn Brooks O'Connell Award for Outstanding Teaching. She offers classes on the psychology of women, the psychology of health, and race, gender, and sexuality in Hip Hop, among other topics. She received her PhD in Child and Family Development from The University of Georgia–Athens.

    John W. Townsend is the director of the Population Council's Reproductive Health program. As program director, he is responsible for the development and implementation of a strategy to promote better reproductive health and family planning programs worldwide through operations research. In his more than 20 years at the council, he has served as the director of the Frontiers in Reproductive Health program; the regional director for Latin America and the Caribbean (1990–1993) in Mexico; the country director for Colombia (1984); and the director of operations research programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (1985–1990) and also Asia and the Near East (1993–1998). Before joining the council, he served for 8 years with the Institute of Nutrition for Central America and Panama, in Guatemala. He is a frequent presenter at professional meetings and has published extensively. He holds a doctorate in social psychology with supporting studies in public affairs and educational psychology from the University of Minnesota. In 2006, he received USAID's Marjorie Horn Operations Research Award for excellence in conducting and utilization of research.

    Lynet Uttal has been an associate professor in human development and family studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison since 2002. She was trained in sociology at the University of California–Santa Cruz (UCSC), and she graduated in 1993. She has been inspired by UCSC and the Center for Research on Women at Memphis State University to conduct socially relevant research and develop grounded critical theoretical concepts. Her thinking is influenced by feminist thought, multiracial feminist family scholarship, qualitative sociology, and community-based research. In 2002, she published Making Care Work: Employed Mothers in the New Childcare Market. For the past 4 years, she has been the codirector of Formando Lazos, a research and education project for Latino immigrant parents. She was fortunate to work with a great team of community partners and students to develop this program. The program collected data on contemporary issues for new immigrant parents while simultaneously providing a space for immigrants to support one another in their adaptation and development of bicultural parenting practices in the United States. Recently, she has been teaching courses about racial-ethnic families, immigrant families, and biculturalism and is director of the Asian American Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

    Brad van Eeden-Moorefield is a certified family life educator and assistant professor of human development and family studies at Central Michigan University. His research focuses on the processes of relationship development and maintenance among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) families and stepfamilies and on the use of the Internet to conduct both qualitative and quantitative research. He recently published a longitudinal study with Kay Pasley that examines marital processes that predict instability among stepfamilies. It was published in The International Handbook of Stepfamilies: Policy and Practice in Legal, Research, and Clinical Environments, edited by Jan Pryor. He also published a theoretical piece in the Journal of GLBT Family Studies titled “A Theory of Resilience Applied to Couples Affected by HIV/AIDS.” Currently, he is working on a study that examines the similarities and differences in relationship processes among gay men in their first cohabiting relationships, repartnerships, or stepfamilies and a second study that examines the role of LGBT supportive and nonsupportive work climates in facilitating work-family spillover among lesbian and gay male couples. He received his MSW from a joint program at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University and his PhD from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

    Alexis J. Walker holds the Petersen Chair in Gerontology and Family Studies at Oregon State University where she is Professor and Chair in the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences. She was past president of the National Council on Family Relations and she was a member of Human Development and Aging Subcommittee 2 of the Division of Research Grants of the National Institutes of Health. She has published on family caregiving; the division of household labor, gender, and power in close relationships; feminist pedagogy; and the place of feminism in the study of families. Her research, which has been supported by the National Institute on Aging, has appeared in Family Relations, The Gerontologist, the Journal of Family Issues, the Journals of Gerontology, the Journal of Marriage and Family, Social Psychology Quarterly, and the Psychology of Women Quarterly. She recently completed a 6-year term as editor of the Journal of Marriage and Family (JMF), the foremost journal in family studies. Her current research continues to bring life course and feminist perspectives to the study of adults in family relationships. She received her PhD in human development and family studies from the Pennsylvania State University.

    Rebecca L. Warner is Professor of Sociology at Oregon State University and holds program faculty status in Public Policy and Women Studies. She is coauthor, with Karen Seccombe, of Marriages and Families: Relationships in Social Context. Her primary research interests focus on the intersections of family, gender, and public policy. She served as Chair of the Department of Sociology for 9 years, and she is the 2008 recipient of the university's C. Curtis Mumford Faculty Service Award.

    Anisa Mary Zvonkovic is Professor and Department Chair in Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) at Texas Tech University. She studies intimate relationships, in particular the connection between paid work and personal life. Her recent research focus has been on the work and family lives of individuals whose jobs require them to travel frequently. Trained in psychology and religious studies, she obtained her graduate degrees from HDFS at Penn State. Her interdisciplinary training and work, her involvement in the interdisciplinary organization of the National Council on Family Relations, and her intercultural life experiences were catalysts for the chapter she contributed.

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