The SAGE Handbook of Education for Citizenship and Democracy brings together new work by some of the leading authorities on citizenship education, and is divided into five sections. The first section deals with key ideas about citizenship education including democracy, rights, globalization and equity. Section two contains a wide range of national case studies of citizenship education including African, Asian, Australian, European and North and South American examples. The third section focuses on perspectives about citizenship education with discussions about key areas such as sustainable development, anti-racism, and gender. Section four provides insights into different characterizations of citizenship education with illustrations of democratic schools, peace and conflict education, global education, human rights education etc. The final section provides a series of chapters on the pedagogy of citizenship education with discussions about curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment.
Chapter 9: Reinventing Freire: Exceptional Cases of Citizenship Education in Brazil
Reinventing Freire: Exceptional Cases of Citizenship Education in Brazil
Like most Latin American countries, Brazil is characterized by severe economic and social inequalities that result in exclusion and extreme poverty for large segments of the population. Without access to basic human rights such as sufficient food and clean water, gainful employment, land ownership, or meaningful social and political participation, the basic preconditions for full citizenship are negated for millions of Brazilians. Educational opportunities are particularly affected in this segmented and hierarchical system, which tends to reproduce inequalities rather than diminish them.
Brazilian schools are mandated with promoting education for citizenship, but many public schools - largely due to the state withdrawal and funding cuts that occurred ...