Reflecting the enormous changes that have taken place in our knowledge and understanding of developmental disorders, this groundbreaking international volume brings this vast and complex field together for the first time. The editors have collected together the world’s leading academic scholars and clinicians, to explore how current research across a range of different disciplines can inform academic knowledge and clinical practice and help to improve the lives of individuals and their families.The SAGE Handbook of Developmental Disorders is a central reference in the field for all academics, researchers, clinicians and advanced students involved in the study of developmental disorders, including those in clinical psychology, child psychiatry, child mental health, child genetics and pediatrics, speech language pathology, and developmental disabilities and special education.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Interventions and Outcome

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Interventions and Outcome

Autism spectrum disorders: Interventions and outcome
PatriciaHowlin, TonyCharman

Intervention Programmes for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Historical Background

In the years immediately following Kanner's initial descriptions of autism, many psychiatrists, including Kanner himself (1943), assumed the condition was an early form of schizophrenia with a psychogenic basis. Consequently, psychoanalysis, together with the drugs and other treatments used at the time for schizophrenia, including electroconvalsive therapy (ECT), were widely used. In adulthood, long-term placement in psychiatric hospitals or institutions for the ‘mentally retarded’ was the most likely outcome. However, in the mid to late 1960s, studies began to emerge documenting how operant approaches could be successfully used to modify many of the behaviours shown by children with autism (see Howlin & Rutter, 1987 for ...

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