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Part I: Intercultural/International Conflict
Intercultural conflict is broadly defined in this section as the experience of emotional frustration and/or antagonistic struggle between a minimum of two different cultural parties (or identity groups) in conjunction with perceived or actual incompatibility of values, norms, face orientations, goals, scarce resources, processes, and/or outcomes in a face-to-face or mediated context (Ting-Toomey & Oetzel, 2001). Intercultural conflict revolves around the diverse cultural approaches people bring with them in expressing their different cultural or ethnic values, identity issues, interaction norms, face-saving orientations, power resource transactions, divergent goal emphasis, and contrastive conflict styles in a conflict episode or protracted conflict episodes.
In conjunction with steeply held sociocultural roots and historical grievances and other macro-level differences (e.g., political system differences, spiritual belief differences, or identity/power ...