The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory documents and builds upon some of the most innovative developments in architectural theory over the last two decades. Bringing into dialogue a range of geographically, institutionally and historically competing positions, the book examines and explores parallel debates in related fields. The book is divided into eight sections. Creating openings for future lines of inquiry and establishing the basis for new directions for education, research and practice, the book organizes itself around specific case studies to provide a critical, interpretive and speculative enquiry into the relevant debates in architectural theory. A methodical, authoritative and comprehensive addition to the literature, the Handbook is suitable for academics, researchers and practitioners in architecture, urban geography, cultural studies, sociology and geography.



The twenty-first century has realised the urbanization of fifty percent of the world's population, of whom almost half live in so-called ‘informal settlements’. This substantial proportion of the world's population is essentially ‘homeless’, being marginalized from formal economic systems and excluded from the fundamental transactions that enable an everyday life of a standard that might be expected in a modern, globalizing world. Seldom capable of breaking from their socio-economic situation, they build on land that is occupied illegally and use found materials for their dwellings. They have little choice. Many have migrated to the city looking for opportunities for work.

Figure 40.1 (Below) San Miguel de la Vega, Caracas, Venezuela (1998–2001). View from upgraded neighbourhood to Caracas. (Mateo and Matias Pinto D'Lacoste)

Such informal settlements ...

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