The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory documents and builds upon some of the most innovative developments in architectural theory over the last two decades. Bringing into dialogue a range of geographically, institutionally and historically competing positions, the book examines and explores parallel debates in related fields. The book is divided into eight sections. Creating openings for future lines of inquiry and establishing the basis for new directions for education, research and practice, the book organizes itself around specific case studies to provide a critical, interpretive and speculative enquiry into the relevant debates in architectural theory. A methodical, authoritative and comprehensive addition to the literature, the Handbook is suitable for academics, researchers and practitioners in architecture, urban geography, cultural studies, sociology and geography.
Chapter 35: Landscapes
The profound complexity inherent in landscapes – precisely because they embody culture and nature, art and science, the collective and the personal, the natural and the artificial, the static and the dynamic – has led to the use and abuse of the term (Berrizbeitia 2001). In an era when the city is progressively built by an ad-hoc project modus, the widespread (re)emergence of landscape is indicative of a paradigmatic shift. Indeed, over the course of the twentieth century, there has been a change from landscape as a [Page 626]negotiated condition between ‘natural’ and ‘artificial,’ towards landscape as a richer term, embracing urbanism, infrastructure, strategic planning, architecture and speculative ideas. Landscape discourse has shifted from landscape-as-picture (and its historical associations to painting) to landscape-as-process (and ...