The Handbook of Understanding and Measuring Intelligence provides an overview of recent studies on intelligence to help readers develop a sound understanding of results and perspectives in intelligence research. In this volume, editors Oliver Wilhelm and Randall W. Engle bring together a group of respected experts from two fields of intelligence research, cognition and methods, to summarize, review, and evaluate research in their areas of expertise. The chapters in this book present state-of-the-art examinations of a particular domain of intelligence research and highlight important methodological considerations, theoretical claims, and pervasive problems in the field.
Chapter 21: Measuring Reasoning Ability
Measuring Reasoning Ability
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning is a thinking activity that is of crucial importance throughout our lives. Consequentially, the ability to reason is of central importance in all major theories of intelligence structure. Whenever we think about the causes of events and actions, when we pursue discourse, when we evaluate assumptions and expectations based on our prior knowledge, and when we develop ideas and plans, the ability to reason is pivotal.
The verb reason is associated with various highly overlapping meanings. Justifying and supporting concepts and ideas is as important as convincing others through good reasons and the “discovery” of conclusions through the analysis of discourse. In modern psychology, usually two to three forms of reasoning are distinguished. in deductive reasoning, we ...