Handbook of Understanding and Measuring Intelligence


Edited by: Oliver Wilhelm & Randall W. Engle

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    The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.

    F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Although there has been great progress in intelligence research over the past 100 years, and although there is some consensus on how to measure intelligence and what it might reflect, there are many important questions unanswered. In this book, we want to highlight progress that has been achieved in both understanding and measuring intelligence. Besides an overview of the status quo of knowledge about individual differences in intelligence, we also want to provide a comprehensive perspective on prospective work in the field that remains to be accomplished. This approach serves two goals. On one hand, intelligence assessment is of major importance for students interested in making a career in psychology, education, or other behavioral sciences. Being familiar with fundamental issues of understanding and measuring intelligence is critical for many practical activities. On the other hand, the construct of intelligence is of relevance for several other scientific disciplines, within and outside of psychology. A basic understanding of the established consensus and emerging problems in the field will be helpful for many applied and scientific decisions.

    Some of the chapters focus on the theoretical and construct level. These chapters outline how the understanding of intelligence can be improved by incorporating certain theoretical perspectives and how dealing with these aspects helps us to measure intelligence more thoroughly. Other chapters focus on fundamental statistical and pragmatic assessment problems in measuring intelligence and outline methodological and technological improvements and how these contribute to an improved understanding of intelligence. In this preface, we briefly go though all the chapters, grouping them together where we felt it was possible, to give an idea about the scope and content of this book.

    Proposals for new constructs such as critical thinking, situational judgment, practical intelligence, and emotional intelligence need to be evaluated thoroughly (see Chapter 2 by Kyllonen and Lee; Chapter 17 by Henry, Sternberg, and Grigorenko; and Chapter 6 by Matthews, Zeidner, and Roberts). Assessing and predicting these constructs can be a promising new field. As with all new developments, there are difficult problems to be solved, on both the theoretical and operational levels. Initially, this is going to be very hard because established intelligence tests are very successful and have been investigated for a long time. We should applaud and support these efforts but maintain our standards before accepting new constructs as reflecting intelligence.

    In our efforts to understand intelligence, we are interested in unequivocally assigning psychological meaning to terms such as intelligence, abstract thinking, reasoning, and so on. However, there is currently no clear consensus of just what these terms mean exactly. Constructs such as mental speed (see Chapter 3 by Danthiir, Roberts, Schulze, and Wilhelm), controlled attention (see Chapter 5 by Heitz, Unsworth, and Engle), and meta-cognition (see Chapter 7 by Hertzog and Robinson) are all candidates for important intelligence-related constructs and candidates for explanations of what happens cognitively when taking an intelligence test. The basic assumptions and the explanatory mechanisms proposed through such constructs to explain identical, similar, or related intelligence variables need to be explicit and falsifiable (see Chapter 4 by Conway).

    Focusing strictly on intelligence as cognitive processes and general resources seems to have implicitly excluded the area of knowledge. The measurement of knowledge is crucial because there can be no doubt that knowledge is required to succeed in specific (real-life) domains or in complex problem solving by virtue of an interaction with attentional capabilities. Knowledge is a key concept in understanding real-life performance, and its measurement has long been neglected in intelligence research. Focusing on domain-specific knowledge and its acquisition as an important component of intelligent behavior is likely to become more important in the future (see Chapter 8 by Ackerman and Beier, as well as Chapter 20 by Hambrick).

    The physiological substrate thought to be most crucial for intellectual functioning is the frontal lobes. Relating the functioning and malfunctioning of the frontal lobes to intelligence is a specific form of reductionism and can provide important new insights into human cognition in general and individual differences in particular (see Chapter 9 by Kane).

    The promise of fundamental new insights gained through the rapidly developing and controversial technology of genetics is likely to have a big effect on how we think about intelligence (see Chapter 10 by Petrill). Research on the genetics of intelligence is one of the most promising completely new developments in intelligence research.

    Intelligence research has always profited from developmental contributions to the field. Intelligence testing, as Ebbinghaus and Binet invented it, has its origins in pedagogy. On the other side, Piaget's developmental theory has its roots in the analysis of errors of subjects in Binet's laboratory. Central concepts such as fluid and crystallized intelligence gained initial support largely by demonstrating different developmental trajectories in older age. Two chapters (Chapter 11 by Pascual-Leone and Johnson; Chapter 12 by Lövdén and Lindenberger) address the major recent psychological and methodological contributions of developmental psychology to our understanding of intelligence.

    The observation of group differences in intelligence is an important and pervasive issue in testing. The implications are far-reaching and of great importance in public policy. It is essential to develop a scientifically sound understanding and provide professional advice for policymakers. Although very controversial, it is necessary to discuss the issue, address scientifically established causes, and outline possible interventions (see Chapter 13 by Wittmann).

    The methodological fundamentals of intelligence testing must be understood to draw any conclusions about theories of intelligence. The methods for dealing with tests are traditionally twofold. On a test or subtest level, relations between specific tests are of interest in theories of intelligence structure (see Chapter 14 by Schulze). On the lowest observational level, item response theory is crucial in test construction and psychometric analysis (see Chapter 15 by Schmiedek). In both these areas, there has been substantial progress in the past two decades, and this is already affecting how we test our theories. Without at least a basic knowledge of these two areas, it is pointless to try and work through many of the chapters of this book or any other advanced treatise on intelligence.

    One particularly controversial problem in intelligence research is the nature and importance of the so-called general factor. Besides assigning meaning to the statistical abstraction of a general factor, good tests to measure it and adequate methods to extract it are necessary prerequisites to assess the magnitude and relevance of this concept (see Chapter 16 by Stankov).

    Faceted models of intelligence, initially intended as a specific theory of intelligence research, have developed into an arsenal of methods and procedures that are particularly useful in conceptualizing measurement approaches. Faceted models helped to put the focus of research efforts on the psychological level of intelligence research in that these models provided the methodological background for discussing intelligence tasks with respect to their psychological demands (see Chapter 18 by Süß and Beauducel).

    The influence of available intelligence tests on research can hardly be overestimated. Within intelligence research, as well as when intelligence measures are used in other areas of psychological research, the availability of measures is an important pragmatic constraint that has a strong impact on research outcomes as well as applied work. However, there is an enormous gap between theoretically established models of intelligence research and widely used tests of cognitive abilities. Gaining insight into what established tests actually measure is crucial in understanding what test results mean (see Chapter 19 by Roberts, Markham, Matthews, and Zeidner).

    Reasoning ability is included in every structural theory. In hierarchical, higher order, and topographical theories of intelligence, reasoning ability is central to the ability arrangement. Similarly, in applied settings, reasoning ability is usually the most potent predictor. The structure of reasoning tests is debatable, however (see Chapter 21 by Wilhelm).

    Working memory is currently the most prominent candidate for the explanation of many crucial intelligence aspects. Working memory has been particularly fruitful in predicting and explaining intelligence. However, currently there is an inflation of working memory measures, and many of these measures (old and new) are psychometrically unsound and in desperate need of improvement (see Chapter 22 by Oberauer).

    Learning disabilities are an applied area of intelligence research with rapidly growing importance and relevance. The complicated problem of understanding and measuring specific learning disabilities can contribute importantly to our understanding of unimpaired intelligence, to distinguishing learning disabilities from other cognitive impairments, and to providing insight into details of the measurement and diagnosis of learning disabilities (see Chapter 23 by Swanson).

    Another applied area deals with the validity and implications of intelligence. The contribution of intelligence to the explanation and prediction of real-life phenomena has been demonstrated in many fields. These contributions are specifically important in the field of personnel selection (see Chapter 24 by Ones, Viswesvaran, and Dilchert).

    We are particularly glad that we were able to convince two outstanding researchers in the field of cognition and intelligence to be discussants for this book. The various approaches to the understanding of intelligence are discussed and assessed in a chapter from Nelson Cowan (Chapter 25). The focus here is on the identification of which of the presented approaches is likely to deepen and improve our understanding of intelligence in the future. The chapter discusses the contributions of Roberts, Markham, Matthews, and Zeidner; Conway; Heitz, Unsworth, and Engle; Kane; Oberauer; Wilhelm; Hertzog and Robinson; Ackerman and Beier; Hambrick; Pascual-Leone and Johnson; Lövdén and Lindenberger; and Swanson. The contributions to the measuring of intelligence are discussed and assessed by Nathan Brody (Chapter 26). The focus here is on what we have learned from the measurement of intelligence so far, how we should do it, and how we can improve it. This chapter discusses the contributions of Danthiir, Roberts, Schulze, and Wilhelm; Ones, Viswesvaran, and Dilchert; Petrill; Schulze; Schmiedek; Stankov; Wittmann; Süß and Beauducel; Kyllonen and Lee; Henry, Sternberg, and Grigorenko; and Matthews, Zeidner, and Roberts. These two discussions conclude the book.

    Primarily, the book is intended for use by advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and professionals in psychology and education. The book is meant to provide a background on recent research in intelligence and to help readers to develop a sound understanding of results and perspectives in intelligence research. More generally, the book is supposed to provide scientists with broad interests in individual differences, cognitive abilities, intelligence, educational measurement, thinking, reasoning, or problem solving with a comprehensive description of the status quo and prospects of intelligence research.

    A number of individuals have helped us substantially in the task of editing this book. Vanessa Danthiir made important contributions in skillfully proofreading all chapters and providing constructive suggestions well beyond simple orthography, layout for improvements where necessary, and careful copyediting. Jim Brace-Thompson, Alison Mudditt, Karen Ehrmann, and Gillian Dickens reacted flexibly and supportively to all suggestions we made in an effort to improve the book. Their constant support and great editorial service helped us in focusing on the content side of the book.

    Editing this handbook has been an interesting, thought-provoking, and rewarding experience. We would like to express our gratitude to the authors for providing state-of-the-art science to a broad audience and for helping to make this book what we hope to be a lasting contribution to intelligence research. We hope that all readers will find this volume helpful in gaining valuable insights into the theory and measurement of human intelligence. We will be rewarded if this book advances our field and if it provokes new and innovative research on this topic.

    OliverWilhelm and Randall W.Engle
  • About the Editors

    Oliver Wilhelm is Professor of Psychology at Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany. He earned his doctoral degree in 2000 from the University of Mannheim and subsequently worked at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, and at the University of Arizona in Tucson. His research focuses on individual differences in working memory, reasoning, and mental speed. Additional research interests are in intellectual engagement, openness for new experiences, and cognitive failures and how these traits relate to various abilities. He is also doing experimental work on deductive reasoning and working memory.

    Randall W. Engle received his Ph.D. in 1973 from The Ohio State University, where his mentor was D. D. Wickens. Following a 21-year tenure at the University of South Carolina, he moved to Atlanta, where he took the position of Professor and Chair of the School of Psychology at Georgia Tech. He has published numerous papers and book chapters exploring the properties of attention and working memory capacity (WMC), as well as their relationship to intelligence. Together with faculty colleagues across the globe, the Engle team, including former doctoral students and post docs, continues to pursue the nature of WMC using microanalytic experimental studies and macroanalytic factor analysis studies.

    About the Contributors

    Phillip L. Ackerman is Professor of Psychology at Georgia Tech. He has conducted research on cognitive and information-processing psychology, individual differences, human abilities, research methodology, and engineering psychology. He has also written extensively on the nature of adult learning, skill acquisition, selection, training, abilities, personality, and motivation. His recent empirical and theoretical contributions address the ability, motivation, personality, and self-concept determinants of skilled performance, training success, and the development of intellectual competence in adulthood. He is the current Editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

    André Beauducel earned his Ph.D. at the University of Dresden and is Assistant Professor at the University of Mannheim, Germany. He is working in the field of differential psychology, psychological assessment, and multivariate data analysis. His research interests focus on psychometric and psychophysiological traits—specifically, intelligence and personality traits. in the domain of intelligence, he worked on the Berlin intelligence structure model and on fluid and crystallized intelligence. In the domain of personality, he is especially interested in sensation seeking and impulsivity.

    Margaret E. Beier is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Rice University in Houston, Texas. She received her Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia. Her research interest is broadly focused on adult intellectual development, working memory, domain-specific knowledge, gender differences in cognition, and predicting success for adults in organizations and educational settings. Her work includes examining the role of cognitive ability, personality traits, and demographic factors in learning.

    Nathan Brody is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Wesleyan University in Middle- town, Connecticut. He is also Past President of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences. A recent member of the APA Task Force on Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, he has been an active contributor to discourse on intelligence and personality theory for several decades. His two most recent books are Personality Psychology (coauthored with Howard Ehrlichman, 1998) and Intelligence (second edition, 1992). He is a member of the editorial boards of Psychological Science, Intelligence, and Personality and Individual Differences.

    Andrew R. A. Conway is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The focus of his research is on individual differences in cognitive ability—specifically, working memory capacity, selective attention ability, and general intelligence. He teaches courses on human memory, human attention, and multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling. He earned his Ph.D. in 1996 from the University of South Carolina, where he worked with Dr. Randall W. Engle.

    Nelson Cowan, Curator's Professor at the University of Missouri, examines links between working memory and attention, as well as their development throughout childhood. He investigates reasons for the limit in how much information can be attended at a time and the relation between capacity and executive control. His book, Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework (1995), preceded a 2001 article in the Behavioral and Brain Sciences on capacity limits, as well as other works. He formerly was Associate Editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition and currently is Associate Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.

    Vanessa Danthiir, a doctoral candidate at Humboldt University, works with Oliver Wilhelm. Her broad research interest is in individual differences. Currently, her research focuses on mental speed within the structure of human cognitive abilities. She has also conducted research on the relationship of an EEG index of gamma synchrony to cognitive abilities, the role of individual differences in confidence judgments, and olfaction and cognitive abilities.

    Stephan Dilchert is a doctoral student in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the University of Minnesota. His research interests lie in the domains of cognitive ability and personality. He has published and presented papers on the organizational consequences of using cognitive ability measures in personnel selection as well as on group differences on personality traits and their implications for adverse impact. He is currently investigating the merits of newly proposed intelligence constructs such as practical intelligence for personnel decisions.

    Elena L. Grigorenko is Associate Professor for Yale University's Department of Psychology and Child Study Center. She also serves as the Deputy Director for the Yale Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise (PACE Center). She has contributed to numerous educational achievement and abilities assessments, coauthored several educational sets of materials for multiple grade levels, and served as Associate Editor of the journal Contemporary Psychology. She is the recipient of five awards from the American Psychological Association and author of more than 100 publications.

    David Z. Hambrick is Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University. His research focuses on individual and developmental differences in cognition, particularly on the interplay between domain-specific and domain-general factors in higher-level cognition. He teaches courses on human memory and skilled performance. He received his Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he worked with Drs. Randall W. Engle and Timothy A. Salthouse.

    Richard P. Heitz, a doctoral candidate at the Georgia Institute of Technology, works with Randall W. Engle. His research is concerned with working memory capacity and attention control in low-level tasks, particularly in the visual modality. Specifically, he explores how differences in executive control relate to one's ability to manipulate the orientation and movement of visual attention. Currently, he is following up on his master's thesis, which deals with this question.

    P. J. Henry received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from UCLA in 2001. After spending a year teaching and conducting research at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, he spent the 2002–2003 academic year directing the Rainbow Project at Yale University. He is on the faculty in the Department of Psychology at De Paul University, where he is conducting research on status and power differences in prejudice, conflict, and conflict resolution processes.

    Christopher Hertzog is Professor of Psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Southern California in 1979 in Adult Development and Aging. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington and an Assistant Professor at the Pennsylvania State University before moving to Atlanta in 1985. He has published widely on the topics of adult cognitive development and aging, emphasizing individual differences in cognition and metacognition. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Gerontological Society of America.

    Janice Johnson earned her Ph.D. in 1982 from York University and is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto. Her research interests are in cognition, psycholinguistics, and cognitive process analysis. Her current research focuses on culture- fair assessment of cognitive capacity in mainstream and special developmental samples, children's intuitive reasoning in mathematics, measurement of cognitive inhibition and executive functions in children and adults, and cognitive style and language processing.

    Michael J. Kane earned his Ph.D. from Duke University in 1995 and is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research focuses on age and individual differences in working memory capacity and attentional/cognitive control (e.g., selective focusing, suppressing habitual responses, visual search, task set switching). He sits on the editorial boards for the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General and Memory and Cognition.

    Patrick C. Kyllonen is Director for the Center of New Constructs in Educational Testing Service's R&D Division, Princeton, New Jersey. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and, in 2003, received the ETS Scientist Award. He serves on the editorial board of the journal Intelligence. His research interests include knowledge assessment and situational judgment testing, as well as socio-affective constructs such as interests, attitudes, values, communication skills, and personality as they affect performance in higher education and the workplace.

    Soonmook Lee is Professor in the Department of Psychology at Sungkyunkwan University, Korea. He is an industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologist and psychometrician. He was the president of the Korean Society of Industrial/ Organizational Psychology. He also participated in developing the Public Service Aptitude Test for the Korean government and selection systems for many organizations. His research interests include situational judgment testing, assessment center technique, human resource development, and multilevel modeling in organizations. He teaches factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multilevel modeling.

    Ulman Lindenberger is Codirector of the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany. He received his Ph.D. from the Free University of Berlin, Germany. At the time of preparing his contribution to this volume, he held a professorship at the School of Psychology, Saarland University, Germany. His work and research interests focus on theories and methods of life span psychology, behavioral plasticity and its neural correlates, sensorimotor and cognitive development, and multivariate measurement of change and variability.

    Martin Lövdén is an international research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany. He received his Ph.D. from Stockholm University, Sweden. At the time of preparing his contribution to this volume, he was a post doc at the School of Psychology, Saarland University, Germany. His work and research interests focus on individual- oriented approaches to cognitive development and aging, episodic memory and knowledge interactions across the life span, and sensorimo- tor and cognitive development.

    Pippa M. Markham is Research Assistant in the Center for New Constructs at ETS, Princeton, New Jersey. Although new to the discipline, she has already published several articles in peer- reviewed journals and developed her own test battery. Her areas of specialization include practical intelligence, chronotype, personality, and new measurement approaches in differential psychology.

    Gerald Matthews is Professor of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati. His research focuses on human performance, cognitive models of personality, the assessment of acute states of stress and emotion, and emotional intelligence. He has published more than 150 journal articles and book chapters on these topics. He has coauthored books on Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective (1994), Personality Traits (1998), Human Performance: Cognition, Stress and Individual Differences (2000), and Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth (2003).

    Klaus Oberauer earned his Ph.D. from the University of Heidelberg in 1995. He currently holds a position as a research scientist at the University of Potsdam, Germany. His research focuses on capacity limits of working memory, combining experimental research with investigations of individual and age differences. He is also working on the psychology of deductive reasoning and on the acquisition of dual-task skills.

    Deniz S. Ones (Ph.D., 1993, University of Iowa) is the Hellervik Professor of Industrial Psychology at the University of Minnesota. She has authored more than 100 articles on cognitive ability, personality, and job performance. She received the best dissertation and early career awards from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology. She serves on the editorial boards of five journals. She has edited the two-volume Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology (2001) and is the Coeditor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment.

    Juan Pascual-Leone (M.D., 1957, University of Valencia, Spain; Ph.D., 1969, University of Geneva) is Professor and Senior Scholar in the Department of Psychology at York University, Toronto. His research concerns developmental and learning processes throughout the life span and their neuropsychological foundations. Theoretical interests include constructive episte- mology and logical methods of process and task analysis. He has been made Fellow of the Foundations' Fund for Research in Psychiatry, the Canadian Psychological Association, and the Van Leer Jerusalem Foundation. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Adult Development, Infancia y Aprendizaje (Barcelona), Substratum: Revista Internacional de Psichologia y Educación (Madrid), and Revista Argentina de Psiycoterapia (Buenos Aires).

    Stephen A. Petrill is Associate Professor in the Department of Biobehavioral Health and the Assistant Director of the Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, Pennsylvania State University. His research examines the geneenvironment processes on the development of cognitive ability, reading skills, and socio- emotional development. He teaches courses on research methods and developmental behavioral genetics. He earned his Ph.D. in 1995 from Case Western Reserve University, where he worked with Drs. Lee Thompson and Douglas Detterman.

    Richard D. Roberts (Ph.D., University of Sydney) is a Senior Research Scientist in the Center for New Constructs at ETS, Princeton, New Jersey, and holds an honorary position in the School of Psychology, University of Sydney. His area of specialization is individual differences, and he is applying this knowledge currently in the investigation of practical and emotional intelligence, cognitive aging, teacher attrition, time management, and circadian rhythms. He has published more than 50 articles. His most recent book is Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth, coauthored with Moshe Zeidner and Gerry Matthews.

    A. Emanuel Robinson is a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. He received his M.S. from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003 and is currently completing his Ph.D. requirements. His main areas of interest are reasoning processes (deductive and causal), strategy development and utilization, metacognition, and mathematical problem solving. Within some of these topics, there is an emphasis on the role of individual differences and aging. He is a student member of the Cognitive Science Society and the American Psychological Society.

    Florian Schmiedek received his Ph.D. from the Free University, Berlin, Germany in 2002. Currently, he is a research scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology, Berlin, Germany. His work and research interests are focused on methods—specifically, item response theory, structural equation modeling, and longitudinal analysis methods—and issues of life span developmental psychology, particularly the study of intraindividual variability in different psychological domains and at different time scales, as well as multivariate modeling of cognitive aging phenomena.

    Ralf Schulze is a scientific assistant in the Psychologisches Institut IV at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany. His research interests span the fields of differential and social psychology as well as research methods. In the area of intelligence research, he focuses on individual differences in cognitive motivation, emotional intelligence, and structural models of intelligence. In other areas, he focuses on attitudinal ambivalence, the attitude- behavior relationship, methods of meta-analysis, and measurement models. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Münster.

    Lazar Stankov has been a leading investigator in individual differences for the past few decades. His research has examined cognitive abilities and intelligence, auditory abilities, attention, the aging of abilities, complexity, speed of processing, confidence judgments, personality, and emotional intelligence. He has served as referee for a number of papers submitted for publication to the Australian Journal of Psychology, Australian Psychologist, Journal of Educational Psychology, Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, Learning and Individual Differences, Psychology and Aging, British Journal of Psychology, Perception, and the Yugoslavian journal Psihologija.

    Robert J. Sternberg is IBM Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Psychology at Yale University, as well as Director of the Yale Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise. He is also immediate past president of the American Psychological Association. His main interests are in intelligence, creativity, wisdom, and leadership.

    Heinz-Martin Süß is Professor of Psychology at the Otto-von-Guericke-University of Magdeburg. After receiving his Ph.D. at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, he served as a research scientist and lecturer at the University of Marburg, the Free University in Berlin, and the University of Mannheim. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Basel and Fribourg, as well as a visiting academic at the Max-Planck-nstitute for Human Development in Berlin. His current research focuses on working memory and intelligence, social intelligence, complex problem solving, and evaluation research.

    H. Lee Swanson is Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of California at Riverside. He received his Ph.D. from the University of New Mexico and completed his postdoctoral work at UCLA. He serves on several editorial boards and is a certified psychologist. His research over the past decade has focused on the cognitive processes of children with learning disabilities. He has recently received a large federal grant from the Institute of Educational Science to focus on growth in working memory in children who are precocious in mathematics or at risk for mathematical disabilities.

    Nash Unsworth, a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, works with Randall Engle. His broad research focus is in working memory and cognition. Specifically, his work deals primarily with individual differences in working memory capacity and its relation to both low-level and high-level cognition. He recently completed a line of studies using the anti-saccade task and is currently conducting an analysis of Operation Span and Raven's data.

    Chockalingam Viswesvaran (Ph.D., 1993, University of Iowa) is Director of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology program at Florida International University. He has published more than 100 articles relating to personnel selection, performance appraisal, and methodological innovations. He serves on the editorial boards of several scientific journals and as Associate Editor of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. He has received the best dissertation and the early career awards from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He has edited the two-volume Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology and several special issues of journals on cognitive ability and technology in personnel selection.

    Werner W. Wittmann is Professor of Psychology at the University of Mannheim, Germany. His specialization is research designs, measurement, and evaluation research. He directs a research group dealing with the relationship between working memory, intelligence, and complex problem-solving capacity. He developed a multivariate reliability and validity theory based on the symmetry principles of the Brunswik lens model. He and his students did the first German-speaking meta-analysis in psychotherapy research and large-scale program evaluation studies in the health and rehabilitation system. He cooperated with the late A. O. Jäger, the originator of the Berlin Intelligence Structure model.

    Moshe Zeidner is Dean of Research and Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Haifa. His main fields of interest are in the area of human emotions, personality and individual differences (with particular concern for the interface of personality and intelligence and the stress and coping process), and psychoeducational assessment. He currently serves as Associate Editor of Anxiety, Stress, and Coping: An International Journal and is an ad hoc reviewer for a number of journals. He is the author or coeditor of 7 books and author of more than 120 scientific papers and chapters.

    Author Index

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