Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities
The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities is an interdisciplinary and international culmination of the growth of men's studies that also offers insight about future directions for the field. The Handbook provides a broad view of masculinities primarily across the social sciences, with the inclusion of important debates in some areas of the humanities and natural sciences. The various approaches presented in this Handbook range across different disciplines, theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and conceptualizations in relation to the topic of men. Editors Michael S. Kimmel, Jeff Hearn, and Robert W. Connell have assembled an esteemed group of contributors who are among the best-known experts in their particular fields.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Theoretical Perspectives
- Chapter 2: Social Theories for Researching Men and Masculinities: Direct Gender Hierarchy and Structural Inequality
- Chapter 3: Men, Masculinities, and Feminist Theory
- Chapter 4: Queering the Pitch? Gay Masculinities
Part II: Global and Regional Patterns
- Chapter 5: Globalization, Imperialism, and Masculinities
- Chapter 6: Men in the Third World: Postcolonial Perspectives on Masculinity
- Chapter 7: Masculinities in Latin America
- Chapter 8: East Asian Masculinities
- Chapter 9: Men, Masculinities, and “Europe”
Part III: Structures, Institutions, and Processes
- Chapter 10: Class and Masculinity
- Chapter 11: Male Sexualities
- Chapter 12: Men, Masculinities, and Crime
- Chapter 13: Masculinities in Education
- Chapter 14: Boys and Men in Families: The Domestic Production of Gender, Power, and Privilege
- Chapter 15: Fatherhood and Masculinities
- Chapter 16: “Gentlemen, the Lunchbox Has Landed”: Representations of Masculinities and Men's Bodies in the Popular Media
- Chapter 17: Men and Masculinities in Work, Organizations, and Management
Part IV: Bodies, Selves, Discourses
- Chapter 18: Still a Man's World? Studying Masculinities and Sport
- Chapter 19: The Study of Masculinities and Men's Health: An Overview
- Chapter 20: Masculinities and Interpersonal Violence
- Chapter 21: Masculinity and Degrees of Bodily Normativity in Western Culture
- Chapter 22: Transgendering, Men, and Masculinities
Part V: Politics
- Chapter 23: Nation
- Chapter 24: Globalization and its Mal(e)contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of Terrorism
- Chapter 25: War, Militarism, and Masculinities
- Chapter 26: Islamist Masculinity and Muslim Masculinities
- Chapter 27: Men's Collective Struggles for Gender Justice: The Case of Antiviolence Activism
Copyright © 2005 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Handbook of studies on men and masculinities / edited by Michael S. Kimmel, Jeff Hearn, and R. W. Connell.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2369-1 (cloth)
1. Men—Social conditions. 2. Masculinity. 3. Sex role. I. Kimmel, Michael S. II. Hearn, Jeff, 1947- III. Connell, R. W.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
04 05 06 07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Jerry Westby
Editorial Assistant: Vonessa Vondera
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Copy Editors: Katherine Chilton
A. J. Sobczak
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Pamela Van Huss
Cover Designer: Michelle Lee Kenny
About the Editors[Page 499]
Michael S. Kimmel is Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. His books include Changing Men (1987), Men Confront Pornography (1990), Men's Lives (6th edition, 2003), Against the Tide: Profeminist Men in the United States, 1776–1990 (1992), The Politics of Manhood (1996), Manhood: A Cultural History (1996), The Gendered Society (2nd edition, 2003), and the Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities (2004). He edits Men and Masculinities, an interdisciplinary scholarly journal. He is the spokesperson for the National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS) and lectures extensively on campuses in the United States and abroad.
Jeff Hearn is Academy Fellow and Professor, Swedish School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland, and Research Professor, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom. His authored and coauthored books include The Gender of Oppression (1987), Men in the Public Eye (1992), “Sex” at “Work” (1987/1995), The Violences of Men (1998), Gender, Sexuality and Violence in Organizations (2001), and Gender Divisions and Gender Policies in Top Finnish Companies (2002). Coedited books include The Sexuality of Organization (1989), Men, Masculinities, and Social Theory (1990), Violence and Gender Relations (1996), Men as Managers, Managers as Men (1996), Men, Gender Divisions, and Welfare (1998), Consuming Cultures (1999), Transforming Politics (1999), and Hard Work in the Academy (1999). He has just completed coediting Information Society and the Workplace (2004). He was Principal Contractor in the EU FP5 Research Network “The Social Problem of Men” (2000–2003) (http://www.cromenet.org) and is currently researching men, gender relations and transnational organizing, organizations, and management.
R. W. Connell, Professor of Education at the University of Sydney, formerly was at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Mac-quarie University. A researcher on gender, masculinities, education, social class, intellectuals, and social theory, he is the author of Gender (2002), The Men and the Boys (2000), Masculinities (1995), and Gender and Power (1987), among other books.[Page 500]
About the Contributors[Page 501]
Michele Adams is Assistant Professor at Tulane University. She has published in the areas of family and gender. Her present research examines the cultural impacts of marriage and the gender implications of the pro-marriage movement.
David L. Collinson is FME Professor of Strategic Learning and Leadership in the Department of Management Learning at Lancaster University Management School. Formerly at the universities of Warwick, Manchester, St. Andrews, and South Florida, he was also Hallsworth Visiting Professor at Manchester Business School in 2001. Adopting a critical approach to management and organization studies, he has published on power, resistance, gender, subjectivity, safety, and humor. Throughout his career, he has been particularly concerned to examine the significance of men and masculinity in shaping workplace processes of control, opposition, and survival. His current research focuses on the development of critical approaches to leadership.
Scott Coltrane is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Riverside; Associate Director of the UCR Center for Family Studies; recipient of the UCR Distinguished Teaching Award; and former President of the Pacific Sociological Association. He completed his undergraduate studies at Yale University and the University of California, Santa Cruz, and received MA and PhD degrees in sociology from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Coltrane studies gender equity and family functioning, with particular attention to the allocation of housework and child care. He has written about the interrelationships among fatherhood, motherhood, marriage, parenting, domestic labor, popular culture, ethnicity, and structural inequality. He is the author of Family Man: Fatherhood, Housework, and Gender Equity (1996; winner of the American Library Association CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book Award), Gender and Families (1998), and Sociology of Marriage and the Family: Gender, Love, and Property (5th edition, 2001, with Randall Collins), and editor of Families and Society (2004). His research has been published in various scholarly journals, including the American Journal of Sociology, Social Problems, Sociological Perspectives, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Journal of Family Issues, Gender & Society, Sex Roles, and Masculinities.
Critical Research on Men in Europe (CROME) consists of Irina Novikova, Director of the Center for Gender Studies, University of Latvia; Keith Pringle, Professor of Social Work, Aalborg University, Denmark, Honorary Professor, University of Warwick, United Kingdom, and Professor in Social Research, Malardalens Hogskola, Sweden; Jeff Hearn, Academy Fellow and Professor, Swedish School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland, and University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom; Ursula M$uUller, Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies and Director of the Interdisciplinary Women's Studies Center, University of Bielefeld, Germany; Elzbieta Oleksy, Professor of Humanities, University of Lodz and University of Warsaw; Emmi Lattu, doctoral researcher, Tampere University, Finland; Janna Chernova, Department of Political Science and Sociology, European University at St. Petersburg, Russia; Harry Ferguson, Professor of Social Work, University of West of England, Bristol, U.K.; $OSystein Gullv$aRg Holter, Senior Researcher, Work Research Institute, Oslo, Norway; Voldemar Kolga, Professor of Personality and Developmental Psychology and Chair of the Women's Studies Center, University of Tallinn, Estonia; Carmine Ventimiglia, Professor of Family Sociology, University of Parma, Italy; Eivind Olsvik, formerly Nordic Co-ordinator for Critical Studies on Men, Nordic Institute of Women's Studies and Gender Research, Oslo, Norway; and Teemu Tallberg, doctoral researcher, Swedish School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland. The CROME Web site (including the European [Page 502]Documentation Centre and Database on Men's Practices) may be found at http://www.cromenet.org
Walter S. DeKeseredy is Professor of Criminology at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology and recently served as Chair of the American Society of Criminology's Division on Critical Criminology. He and Katharine Kelly conducted the first Canadian national representative sample survey of woman abuse, including sexual assault, in university/ college dating. For this work, he was given the Division's Critical Criminologist of the Year Award in 1995. DeKeseredy, who received his PhD in sociology from York University in Toronto, has also published dozens of scientific articles and book chapters on woman abuse, criminological theory, and crime in public housing. He is the author of Woman Abuse in Dating Relationships: The Role of Male Peer Support (1988) and is the coauthor of Woman Abuse: Sociological Perspectives (1991, with Ronald Hinch), the second edition of The Wrong Stuff: An Introduction to the Sociological Study of Deviance (1996, with Desmond Ellis), Woman Abuse: A Sociological Story (1997), Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support (1997, with Martin D. Schwartz), Woman Abuse on Campus: Results From the Canadian National Survey (1998, with Martin D. Schwartz), Contemporary Criminology, Contemporary Social Problems in North American Society (2000, with Shahid Alvi and Desmond Ellis), and Under Siege: Poverty and Crime in a Public Housing Community (2003, with Shahid Alvi, Martin D. Schwartz, and E. Andreas Tomaszewski).
Tim Edwards is Lecturer in sociology at the University of Leicester. He is currently writing a book on masculinities and cultural theory, is editing a collection on cultural theory, and holds an Economic and Social Research Council grant to research children's consumption of fashion. Major previous publications include Contradictions of Consumption (2000), Men in the Mirror (1997), and Erotics & Politics (1994).
Richard Ekins is a psychoanalyst in private practice and Reader in Cultural and Media Studies in the School of Media and Performing Arts at the University of Ulster at Coleraine, where he is Director of the Transgender Research Unit and Archive. He coedits the International Journal of Transgenderism. His edited and authored books include Centres and Peripheries of Psychoanalysis (1994, with Ruth Freeman), Blending Genders (1996, with Dave King), Male Femaling (1997), Selected Writings by Anna Freud (1998, with Ruth Freeman), and Unconscious Mental Life and Reality (2002).
Michael Flood is Research Fellow at the Australia Institute, a public interest think tank. He has also held positions as a Lecturer in Women's and Gender Studies at the Australian National University, and as the Sexual Health Promotion Coordinator at Sexual Health and Family Planning ACT (Australian Capital Territory). His research interests include men and masculinities, sexualities and especially male sexuality and heterosexuality, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health, and boys and youth cultures. He has been involved in profeminist men's activism since 1987.
Judith Kegan Gardiner is Professor of English and of Gender and Women's Studies as well as being Interim Director of the Center for Research on Women and Gender at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is a member of the editorial collective of the interdisciplinary journal Feminist Studies. Her books include Craftsmanship in Context: The Development of Ben Jonson's Poetry (1975), Rhys, Stead, Lessing, and the Politics of Empathy (1989), and two edited volumes, Provoking Agents: Gender and Agency in Theory and Practice (1995) and Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions (2002). Currently she is coediting the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinity.
Shahin Gerami is Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at Southwest Missouri State University. She is a native of Iran and has a law degree from the University of Tehran, as well as a master's and PhD in sociology from the University of Oklahoma. Her research interests focus on gender issues within the context of religious fundamentalism, economic development, and modernization. Her publications in these areas include the book Women and Fundamentalism: Islam and Christianity (1996); articles in Gender and Society, Social Science Quarterly, and Early Child Development; and chapters in books and encyclopedias.
[Page 503]Thomas J. Gerschick is Associate Professor of sociology at Illinois State University, where he teaches about social inequality. His research focuses on the intersection of gender and disability, especially how people with disabilities create self-satisfying gender identities. Outside of academia, he loves to build with Habitat for Humanity.
Matthew C. Gutmann is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Brown University, where he teaches classes on gender, ethnicity-race, health, and ethnography in the Americas. Among his publications are The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City (1996), The Romance of Democracy: Compliant Defiance in Contemporary Mexico (2002), Mainstreaming Men Into Gender and Development: Debates, Reflections, and Experiences (2000, with Sylvia Chant), and the edited volumes Changing Men and Masculinities in Latin America (2003) and Perspectives on Las Americas: A Reader in Culture, History and Representation (2003, with Felix Matos Rodriguez, Lynn Stephen, and Patricia Zavella).
Paul Higate is Lecturer in Social Policy at the School for Policy Studies at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. He has a background in the British armed forces. His research interests have developed in recent years to focus on military masculinities within the context of peacekeeping operations. In Spring, 2003, he undertook a period of fieldwork in the Peace Support Missions in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. He is editor of Military Masculinities: Identity and the State (2003) and a research monograph, Men, Masculinities and Peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa (in press).
ØSystein Gullvåg Holter, PhD in sociology, is Senior Researcher at the Work Research Institute, Oslo, Norway. His background is in gender research, work/family studies, and studies of men. He has worked as Nordic coordinator for studies of men at the University of Oslo. He has written extensively on gender, masculinities, and equality theory, and currently participates in several Nordic and European projects in this field.
John Hopton completed most of his primary and secondary education after moving to Slough in 1963. He originally pursued a career in mental health nursing and nurse education, undertaking higher education courses in the 1980s and completing an MA and PhD within the Centre for Crime and Social Justice, Edge Hill College, in the 1990s. He has been a social science lecturer at Manchester University since 1995 and has published extensively in a range of journals, mostly about mental health. His work in the field of gender studies includes work on masculinity and militarism, the links between hegemonic masculinity and managerialist ideologies, and an exploration of the predominantly masculine culture of the sport known as mixed martial arts or submission fighting.
Brett Hutchins is Lecturer in the School of Sociology and Social Work at the University of Tasmania, where he teaches media studies and social theory. He is currently researching the topic of regional media and globalization. He is the author of Don Bradman: Challenging the Myth (2002).
Dave King is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work Studies at the University of Liverpool. He has been researching and writing on the sociological aspects of transgender for a number of years. He coedits the International Journal of Transgenderism. In addition to several articles, he has written The Transvestite and the Transsexual: Public Categories and Private Identities (1993) and is the coeditor (with Richard Ekins) of Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-dressing and Sex-changing (1996). He is currently interested in exploring issues and problems around aging and transgendering.
William Marsiglio is Professor of Sociology at the University of Florida. Much of his writing has focused on the social psychology of fatherhood, broadly defined. In addition to his numerous articles on various aspects of men's reproductive and fathering experiences, Marsiglio has written several books on these topics, including Stepdads: Stories of Love, Hope, and Repair (2004), Sex, Men, and Babies: Stories of Awareness and Responsibility (2002), and Procreative Man (1998). He also edited Fatherhood: Contemporary Theory, Research, and Social Policy (1995). He and his colleagues coauthored the decade review on fatherhood for the Journal of Marriage and Family (2000). He has served as a consultant for major national surveys on men and sexuality/fatherhood issues.
[Page 504]Jim McKay is Associate Professor in the School of Social Science at the University of Queensland, where he teaches courses on gender and popular culture. His most recent books are Managing Gender: Affirmative Action and Organizational Power in Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand Sport (1997), Men, Masculinities, and Sport (2000, with Michael Messner and Donald Sabo), and Globalization and Sport (2001, with Toby Miller, Geoffrey Lawrence, and David Rowe).
James W. Messerschmidt is Professor of Sociology in the Criminology Department at the University of Southern Maine. He is the author of numerous books and articles on men, masculinities, and crime, including Masculinities and Crime (1993), Crime as Structured Action (1995), and Nine Lives (2000). His current work involves life-history research on girls, gender, and violence and is published in his newest work, Embodied Masculinities, Embodied Violence: Boys, Girls, the Body, and Assault (2004).
Michael A. Messner is Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at the University of Southern California, where he currently chairs the sociology department. His books include Taking the Field: Women, Men, and Sports (2002), Paradoxes of Youth and Sport (2002), and Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity (1992). He has conducted several commissioned studies on gender and sports media, and he is a past President of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport.
Janine Mikosza is a PhD candidate in the School of Social Science at the University of Queensland. Her thesis topic is the cultural production of men's magazines in Australia. She has authored various journal articles and book chapters on gender, the media, and the body.
David Morgan recently retired from the University of Manchester, where he taught sociology for more than 35 years. He currently has an emeritus professorship at Manchester and a part-time position as “Professor 2” at Norwegian Technological University, Trond-heim. He is the author of a number of books and articles on gender and family, including Discovering Men (1992) and Family Connections (1996).
Robert Morrell is Professor of Education at the University of Natal. He is a historian by training but currently focuses his research on masculinities in South Africa and the continent more broadly and on the gendered dimensions of sexuality in a context of AIDS. He is the author of From Boys to Gentlemen: Settler Masculinity in Colonial Natal, 1880–1920 (2001) and editor of Changing Men in Southern Africa (2001).
Joane Nagel is University Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of Kansas. She is author of American Indian Ethnic Renewal (1996) and Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers (2003).
Joseph H. Pleck is Professor of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His books include The Myth of Masculinity (1981), Working Wives, Working Husbands (1985), and The Impact of Work Schedules on the Family (1985). He has also published numerous articles and chapters on adolescent male contraception, attitudes toward masculinity, and father involvement. His current work focuses on paternal identity in residential fathers and on the development of stable romantic unions in young adult men. He is Co-Principal Investigator of the National Survey of Adolescent Males program.
Ken Plummer is Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex, England. His main books are Sexual Stigma (1975), Documents of Life (1983), Documents of Life-2 (2001), Telling Sexual Stories (1995), and Intimate Citizenship (2003); he also coauthored Sociology: A Global Introduction (2nd ed., 2002, with John Macionis). He has written numerous articles on sexuality, life stories, symbolic interactionism, and lesbian and gay studies. He is the founder and editor of the journal Sexualities.
Don Sabo is Professor of Sociology at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York, and Director of the Center for Research on Physical Activity, Sport & Health (http://www.sporthealthresearch.org). He is a recognized expert on gender relations and has been writing and lecturing about issues including physical activity and health, gender equity in athletics, sport and masculinity, and men's violence since 1980. His research and writing also focus on linkages among gender, [Page 505]health, and illness, and he has spearheaded the development of “men's health studies.” His latest book, Prison Masculinities (2001, coedited with T. A. Kupers and W. London), explores the ways that American prisons mirror the worst aspects of society-wide gender relations. He is an eye-to-eye scholar, an avid keynoter, and a public intellectual who is regularly quoted in the national media.
Martin D. Schwartz is Professor of Sociology and Presidential Research Scholar at Ohio University and is now Visiting Research Fellow at the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. He has written or edited 11 books, more than 60 refereed journal articles, and another 40 book chapters, government reports, and essays. A former officer of several organizations, he received the lifetime achievement award of the American Society of Criminology's Division on Critical Criminology and currently serves as coeditor of the journal Criminal Justice: An International Journal of Policy and Practice. He serves on or has served on the editorial boards or as deputy editor of 11 journals, including the top American criminology journals Criminology and Justice Quarterly. He has done manuscript reviews for 55 journals and publishers. At Ohio University, he has won a variety of teaching and service awards, including Graduate Professor of the Year and Best Arts and Sciences Professor (twice), while being the first social scientist to win the university's research achievement award, the title of Presidential Research Scholar. His PhD is from the University of Kentucky, where he was awarded the 2002 Thomas R. Ford Distinguished Alumni Award.
Jon Swain worked for 17 years as a primary school teacher in the United Kingdom before earning a PhD at the Institute of Education, University of London, with a thesis on the construction of boys' masculinities. His particular academic interests are gender, education, and identities. He is currently working as Research Fellow at King's College, London, on two projects concerning adult numeracy.
Sandra Swart is a socioenvironmental historian of southern Africa and lectures at the University of Stellenbosch. She received both her doctorate in history and a master's degree in environmental change and management from Oxford University. She has published on Afrikaner masculinity and on the socio-environmental history of the dog and horse in southern Africa.
Futoshi Taga is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Literature, Kurume University, Japan, where he teaches sociology, education, and gender studies. He was the first person in Japan to complete a PhD on a topic related to masculinities; his thesis was subsequently published as the book Dansei no Jenda Keisei (The Gender Formation of Men). He also has a chapter, “Rethinking Male Socialisation: Life Histories of Japanese Male Youth,” in the collection Asian Masculinities (2003).
Mara Viveros Vigoya is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Bogotá, where she also directs the master's program in cultural anthropology. She is the author of Hombres e identidades de género: Investigaciones desde América Latina (2001, with José Olavarría and Norma Fuller) and De quebradores y cumplidores: Sobre hombres, masculinidades y relaciones de género en Colombia (2002), as well as being the coeditor of Mujeres de los Andes: Condiciones de vida y salud (1992, with Anne-Claire Defossez and Didier Fassin), Genero e identidad: Ensayos sobre lo femenino y lo masculino (1995, with Luz Gabriela Arango and Magdalena León), and Cuerpo, diferencias y desigualdades (1999, with Gloria Garay).