For the most current, comprehensive resource in this rapidly evolving field, look no further than the Revised Edition of the Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. This masterful volume is the first resource in more than 15 years to define, summarize, and synthesize this complex multidisciplinary, international field. Tightly edited with contributions by an internationally recognized team of leading scholars, this volume addresses the crucial contemporary issues—both traditional and nonconventional—social studies, political studies, and humanistic studies in this changing field. Containing theoretical essays, extensive literature reviews, and detailed case studies, this remarkable volume clearly sets the standard for the field. It does nothing less than establish itself as the benchmark, one that will carry the field well into the next century. 

Science as Intellectual Property

Science as intellectual property
Henry Etzkowitz, Andrew Webster

THE Mertonian norms of science depicted scientists as unwilling to involve themselves directly in transforming research results into objects of monetary value (Merton, 1942, 1973b). Academic scientists who marketed their research were defined as deviant. Since at least 1980, however, a significant number of academic scientists have been making contributions to the literature into marketable products, broadening their interests from a single-minded concern with publication and peer recognition. Moreover, these scientists are looked upon as role models by peers who are contemplating business opportunities. Thus the conduct of academic scientists in relationship to the economic value of their research is undergoing a process of a redefinition and normative change (Etzkowitz, 1983, 1989). On the other ...

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