Handbook of Mental Health in the Workplace


Jay C. Thomas & Michel Hersen

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: General Issues

    Part II: Working Conditions, Life Stressors, and Mental Health

    Part III: Effects of Psychopathology on Work

    Part IV: Effects of Disruptive Behavior at Work

    Part V: Organizational Practice and Mental Health

  • Copyright

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    The Handbook of Mental Health in the Workplace is a unique contribution in a burgeoning new field because it combines insights, methods, and problems from multiple disciplines. The growth in interest in mental health in the workplace is fueled by two trends. First, clinicians are growing more aware that the mental health concerns of their adult clients are affected by the workplace, and that treatment without regard to what happens in the employment setting is not likely to succeed. Second, there is growing recognition of the extent of psychopathology in the workforce. Prevalence rates of mental disorders make it likely that many, if not most, employees will, at some time during their career, either experience one or more episodes themselves or know someone who does. In the past, the employer's response to mental illness was to simply discharge the employee, but over the past decade, laws regulating employment of individuals with disabilities have made this a problematic practice. In some cases, such as conditions resulting from job stress, the employer may be considered to have responsibility for the condition and may even be liable for damages. Consequently, organizations have to contend with issues related to psychopathological or disruptive behavior that, a few years ago, they would have swept under the rug. Thus, we see three audiences for this book: clinical and counseling psychologists, who need to know how work and the workplace will influence their clients' progress; industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists and human resources managers (HRM), who need to contend with organizational environments and policies; and administrators of Employee Assistance Programs. Students in these fields will also find it useful in providing them with a distinctive perspective and information that is not readily available elsewhere.

    The book is divided into five parts. Part I, General Issues, provides an overview of the problems surrounding mental health in the workplace and describes the employee and employer rights and responsibilities under the law. Part II, Working Conditions, Life Stressors, and Mental Health, presents the current thinking and research on job stress and its effects on mental and physical health; the impact of work-family conflict, a special type of stressor of particular interest to women; and organizational interventions for reducing job stress and work-family conflict. Part III, Effects of Psychopathology on Work, presents detailed descriptions of the most common forms of psychopathology that may affect the workplace. Although each of these diagnostic categories is well documented elsewhere, the unique contribution of this book is to concentrate on how the disorder affects the ability to work, precipitating factors, and recommended treatments and their likely side effects. All of this is designed to give the clinician, the I/O psychologist, and the HRM the information they need to determine the employee's fitness for work and what, if any, accommodations may be needed. Part IV, Effects of Disruptive Behavior at Work, deals with behavior that may or may not fall into standard diagnostic categories, but that has clear mental health implications. This includes the effects of anger and violence in the workplace, poor social skills, the impact of abuse, exposure to traumatic events in the workplace, passive-aggressive behavior, and the impact of grieving on work. Part V, Organizational Practice and Mental Health, describes how mental health issues need to be considered in designing organizations, designing policies related to mental health concerns, analyzing jobs to identify essential functions that may be affected by mental health, and designing accommodations for psychological disabilities. These chapters will be particularly useful in meeting the legal obligations of employers toward psychologically disabled employees.

    The authors of the chapters deserve special recognition because we asked them to think about their subject in new ways. Although this led initially to some intellectual discomfort, the result was to stimulate new perspectives on established theories and to generate some practical, yet rigorous, solutions to new problems.

    We also thank Carole Londerée for her immense contributions to the organization of this project and Kay Waldron for continually going above and beyond her duties in the preparation of this book. The able assistance of Alex Duncan and Angelina Marchand was invaluable. Finally, Jim Brace-Thompson and his staff at Sage Publications have been a delight to work with and have provided great assistance. Jim, in particular, has been very patient, yet a great motivator in having us complete this project.

    Jay C.ThomasPortland, Oregon
    MichelHersenForest Grove, Oregon
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Jay C. Thomas, PhD, ABPP, is an Associate Professor in the School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University, and is Director of the Counseling Psychology program. He spent several years in private practice as an industrial and organizational psychologist, largely in hiring and training workers and in performance management. His research interests lie in job stress, mental health in the workplace, and program evaluation. His PhD is in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Akron. He is a Diplomate in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, awarded by the American Board of Professional Psychology, and is a licensed psychologist in Oregon.

    Michel Hersen (PhD, ABPP, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1966) is Professor and Dean, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon. He completed his postdoctoral training at the West Haven VA (Yale University School of Medicine Program). He is Past President of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He has coauthored and coedited 134 books and has published 223 scientific journal articles. He is the coeditor of several psychological journals, including Behavior Modification, Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, Clinical Psychology Review, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Journal of Family Violence, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, and Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. He is also the editor-in-chief of a new journal titled Clinical Case Studies, which is totally devoted to description of clients and patients treated with psychotherapy, and he coedited the recently published 11-volume work titled Comprehensive Clinical Psychology. He has been the recipient of numerous grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Department of Education, the National Institute of Disabilities and Rehabilitation Research, and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Distinguished Practitioner and Member of the National Academy of Practice in Psychology, and recipient of the Distinguished Career Achievement Award in 1996 from the American Board of Medical Psychotherapists and Psycho-diagnosticians. Finally, at one point in his career, he was in full-time private practice, and on several occasions, he has had part-time private practices.

    About the Contributors

    Suzanne C. Baker is a doctoral student in sociology and a National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism research trainee at the Institute for Behavioral Research and Human Service Delivery at the University of Georgia. She obtained her undergraduate degree from Ohio University, where she graduated with honors in sociology. During her undergraduate training, she worked on a joint research project between sociology faculty and the Institute for Local Government Administration and Rural Development that examined the impact of welfare reform in rural Ohio. Following graduation, she served as the Domestic Policy Fellow for the Population Reference Bureau in Washington, D.C. She has conducted research in the areas of health, alcohol, and social demography. Her recent works have focused on workplace predictors of alcohol use, Employee Assistance Program utilization for employees with alcohol problems, and Hispanic immigrant self-employment within ethnic economic enclaves. Currently, she is working on a research project examining the influence of workplace culture and occupational attainment on depression among full-time workers in the U.S. labor force.

    Kirsten N. Barr received a BSc from the University of British Columbia and an MA in experimental psychology from Lakehead University, and she is currently completing a PhD at Queen's University, where she studies forensic and evolutionary psychology. She rationalizes that as long as she is a student, the only way she can travel is to complete each degree in a different city.

    Deborah R. Becker, MEd, CRC, is Assistant Research Professor of Community and Family Medicine and of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School. She is a rehabilitation specialist and is the senior project director at the New Hampshire-Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center. She has been Project Director for vocational, housing, and dual-diagnosis research studies. Along with Robert E. Drake, she has described and researched the Individual Placement and Support approach to supported employment. She provides consultation and training on vocational rehabilitation and program implementation. Ms. Becker has also worked in positions of direct service and administration in community support programs for people with severe mental illness.

    Terry A. Beehr is currently Professor and Director of the PhD program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Central Michigan University. His PhD is in organizational psychology from the University of Michigan, and he previously held postgraduate appointments at the Institute for Social Research and Illinois State University. He has conducted research on occupational stress, employee retirements, leadership, careers, and culture.

    H. John Bernardin is University Research Professor in the College of Business at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton. He is the former director of doctoral studies in industrial/organizational psychology at Virginia Tech. Dr. Bernardin is past editor of Human Resource Management Review and has served on the editorial board of numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Review. He is the author of six books and more than 100 articles related to human resource management. Dr. Bernardin received his PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from Bowling Green State University.

    John F. Binning is an Associate Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Illinois State University and president of The DeGarmo Group, Inc., a human resource consulting firm. He received his MA and PhD degrees from the University of Akron, and a BA in psychology from Butler University. Dr. Binning's research interests include psychological and administrative processes that affect the validity of selection decisions in assessment center and employment interview contexts. He is also developing a structured personality assessment system to measure job candidates' congruence with discomforting and stressful job demands, thus enhancing predictions of emotional exhaustion and assisting client organizations to better manage employee turnover. He has published his research findings in Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, and Human Resource Management Journal. For 20 years, he has consulted with organizational clients on projects such as selection system design and validation, EEO compliance, performance appraisal, training design and implementation, and managerial assessment and succession planning.

    Christopher R. Bordeaux, MA, is a doctoral student at the University of Tulsa. He has authored and collaborated on several publications on job attitudes and their relevant outcomes. His current research focuses on the task and contextual performance outcomes of affective disposition, constituency commitment, and climate characteristics.

    Krista Brockwood, Senior Research Associate at the Foundation for Accountability, received her MS in industrial/organizational psychology from Portland State University, where she is also pursuing a doctoral degree. During her graduate career, she served as both project manager and research assistant to Dr. Hammer for the duration of a 3-year study of dual-career couples in the sandwiched generation. More specifically, Ms. Brockwood has focused her research efforts on the accommodations people make to balance work and family. She has co-authored a number of national conference papers and has published a paper on work and family accommodations based on her master's thesis. Presently, Ms. Brockwood is with the Foundation of Accountability, a nonprofit research and consumer advocacy organization for healthcare quality in the United States.

    Linda L. Brown received her MA in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Akron. She is currently continuing her studies in the PhD program in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Akron. Prior to attending graduate school, she was a human resource executive with more than 20 years of experience in such major corporations as Nestle, Bendix, and Kenworth Truck Company. Her research interests include organizational culture and change, power in organizations, and leadership.

    Suzanne Caubet, BS, is a graduate assistant in the Department of Psychology at Portland State University. She received her BS in psychology from Portland State University and is currently earning an MS in applied psychology. She has worked on various research projects, including a longitudinal study of dual-earner couples in the sandwiched generation. She is specifically interested in measurement assessment, survey construction, and workforce development. Ms. Caubet is currently working with the Oregon Governor's Office of Education and Workforce Development researching strategies to increase workforce interest and participation in health care occupations.

    Antonio Cepeda-Benito (PhD, Purdue University, 1994) is Associate Professor of Psychology at Texas A&M University in College Station. He is interested in the psychological processes involved in the formation, maintenance, and cessation of ingestive-compulsive behaviors. One of his areas of study involves the development and validation of measurement tools to assess eating-disorder and smoking related constructs and their role in the development, maintenance, and cessation of these disorders.

    Scott F. Coffey (PhD, University of Mississippi, 1996) is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York, and is also Associate Research Scientist at the Research Institute on Addictions. In addition, he is the Clinical Director of the Mentally Ill Chemically Addicted Treatment Service at Buffalo General Hospital. Dr. Coffey has served as principal investigator and coinvestigator on several National Institutes of Health-supported grants and has published on the assessment, course, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders (SUD), and PTSD-SUD comorbidity.

    Cari L. Colton is a doctoral candidate in the industrial/organizational psychology program at Portland State University. She has worked on various research projects, including a project focused on studying work and family issues among dual-earner couples in the sandwiched generation. Her specific research interests center around organizational factors, such as organizational culture and supervisor support, that may influence individuals' ability to manage work and family demands. Her dissertation research is focused on the distinction between formal and informal organizational support for work and family issues. She was also a contributing writer to the Lifescape project, a project for the dissemination of information to working families and employers, conducted by the Boston College Center for Work and Family. Ms. Colton has given several conference presentations in the area of work and family and has worked on several consulting projects with companies in the Portland, Oregon area.

    Cary L. Cooper is currently BUPA Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health in the Manchester School of Management, as well as Deputy Vice Chancellor of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). He is the author of more than 80 books (on occupational stress, women at work, and industrial and organizational psychology); has written more than 300 scholarly articles for academic journals; and is a frequent contributor to national newspapers, TV, and radio. Professor Cooper is an editor of the international scholarly Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management (a 12-volume set) and the editor of Who's Who in the Management Sciences. He has been an adviser to the World Health Organization, ILO.

    Charles E. Drebing, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the Boston University School of Medicine and a research psychologist in the VHA's New England Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC). His primary research interests focus on health services utilization and pathways to care, particularly in the areas of psychosocial rehabilitation, addictions treatment, and dementia care. He is co-author of a new book about problem gambling, Don't Leave It To Chance.

    H. Heith Durrence is a doctoral candidate at the University of Memphis. He earned his master's degree in psychology from the University of Memphis in 1999 and is currently working as a research coordinator with AmGen pharmaceuticals investigating the effects of chemotherapy on quality of life. He also works in Professor Lichstein's behavioral medicine lab conducting clinical research on sleep disorders.

    Andrea Fagiolini (MD, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy) is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He joined the faculty in 1998, after completing his psychiatric residency at the University of Modena Medical School, Italy. He conducts research primarily on pharmacological treatment strategies for bipolar disorder and weight gain in patients treated with psychotropic medications. The results of his research have appeared in several international peer-reviewed research journals. In addition to conducting research, Dr. Fagiolini is a full-time psychiatrist at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is a member of the educational committee of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders and has received various awards of recognition from the City of Livorno Medical Society, the Institute for Research and Prevention of Depression and Anxiety, and the Italian Society of Psychopathology.

    David M. Fresco is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Kent State University. His research focuses on cognitive and personality styles (e.g., explanatory flexibility, explanatory style, optimism) associated with vulnerability to psychological and physical health concerns; the comorbidity of depression and anxiety—particularly the origins, etiology, and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder; and the development of treatments to promote resiliency to stress and to prevent anxiety, depression, and health concerns.

    Edward S. Friedman, MD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is medical director of the Depression Treatment and Research Program and Principal Investigator for the STEP-BD Program at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. He received his medical degree from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He served an internship in medicine and psychiatry, training in general and child psychiatry, and a residency in general psychiatry at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. Dr. Friedman has presented on mood disorders, treatment-resistant depression, seasonal affective disorder, and psychotherapy, among other topics. He is a member of The Pittsburgh Psychiatric Society, The Allegheny County Medical Society, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, and the American Psychiatric Society.

    David H. Gleaves (PhD, Louisiana State University, 1993) is Associate Professor of Psychology at Texas A&M University in College Station. He coauthored The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders and has published 52 scientific journal articles. He is on the editorial board of several journals, including Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, and The Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.

    Brian C. Goff, PhD, is a licensed psychologist and assistant director of the Portland DBT Program, a private practice clinic specializing in dialectical behavior therapy. He received his doctorate from the clinical psychology program at the University of Oregon, where he studied cognitive and behavioral approaches to the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders and researched cognitive vulnerabilities to depression. He is a presenter and consultant for the Portland DBT Program, providing training and consultation to other mental health professionals and agencies on DBT and the treatment of multidiagnosed, difficult-to-treat individuals. He also oversees the program's research efforts. Dr. Goff has taught at the University of Oregon and Willamette University in the areas of research methodology, psychopathology, and clinical ethics. He holds an odd reverence for the game of golf, but does not play enough.

    Charles J. Golden, PhD, is Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the Neuropsychology Assessment Center at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Neuro-psychologists and the American Psychological Association, and he is board certified in both clinical neuropsychology and clinical psychology. He is also a past president of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists. He has published more than 200 books, articles, and chapters.

    Lindsay S. Ham is a clinical psychology doctoral student in the Department of Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. She received her master's degree from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1999. Her current research and clinical interests include social anxiety and drinking, alcohol expectancies and valuations, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and co-morbidity in anxiety and substance use disorders.

    Leslie B. Hammer, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Portland State University, received her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from Bowling Green State University. She has been studying work and family issues for more than 10 years. Her most recent work is based on a 3-year grant to study dual-earner couples in the sandwiched generation. Her research has focused on the stressors and rewards of coordinating work and family roles. She has written several articles on difficulties in managing work and family demands, and has given numerous presentations at national conferences in the area of work and family. Her work has also been noted in BusinessWeek Online and Time Magazine. Dr. Hammer is also a codirector of a new occupational health psychology program being developed in the Department of Psychology at Portland State University.

    Richard G. Heimberg is Professor and Director of the clinical psychology program at Temple University as well as Director of the Adult Anxiety Clinic. His interests include the psychopathology and treatment of anxiety disorders, especially social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. He is the author of a new book, Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Phobia: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Strategies, and coeditor of the forthcoming book Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Advances in Research and Practice.

    Jeffrey Hite received his MS in counseling psychology from Loyola College in Baltimore, Maryland, and is currently working toward completion of his doctorate in clinical psychology at Pacific University's School of Professional Psychology. His research interests include mental health in the workplace and the use of assessment feedback as a means of improving therapeutic outcome. Mr. Hite is currently working clinically with children and adolescents in an outpatient community mental health setting.

    Robert Hogan received his PhD from the University of California at Berkeley and has been Professor of Psychology and Social Relations at Johns Hopkins University and McFarlin Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Tulsa. He is a past editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and is the author of 300 scholarly articles, chapters, and books. Dr. Hogan is also the author of the Hogan Personality Inventory and is widely credited with having pioneered the use of personality assessment to solve problems in organizations, including screening applicants for potentially antisocial behavior.

    Debra A. Hope is Professor and Director of Clinical Training in the Department of Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Director of the UNL Anxiety Disorders Clinic. She received her doctorate in 1990 from the University at Albany-State University of New York. Her current research and clinical interests include social anxiety disorder, outcome and process of cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders, and information processing models of psychopathology.

    Donna J. Johns is currently a clinical psychology doctoral student at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Oregon. She has been active in research on diversity in the workplace and sexual minority issues. She currently has a manuscript in press looking at sexual minority identity formation.

    Gary Johns is Professor of Management and the Concordia University Research Chair in Management in the John Molson School of Business at Concordia University in Montreal. His research interests include absenteeism from work, job design, organizational context, self-serving behavior, and research methodology.

    Brenda L. Kenyon (Hons. BA, University of Waterloo; MA, University of Guelph; PhD, Concordia University, Montreal) is a clinical psychologist with expertise in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological problems in children and adults. She has worked in hospital and educational settings, and maintains a private practice where she works with adults with mental health problems. Currently, Dr. Kenyon is the Director of the Centre for Psychological Services at the University of Guelph, where she provides psychological services to children, families, and adults; is involved in the training of graduate students in psychology; and teaches courses in the Department of Psychology.

    Barbara A. Lee is Dean of the School of Management and Labor Relations, Rutgers University. An attorney, she has taught employment law and higher education law at Rutgers since 1982 and has served as department chair, associate dean, and associate provost prior to assuming the deanship. She is the author of numerous books and articles on employment law, higher education law, employment discrimination, and academic employment practices. She serves on the Executive Committee of the New Jersey Bar Association's Labor and Employment Law Section, and is a former member of the board of directors of the National Association of College and University Attorneys. She also serves as an expert witness for litigation involving employment discrimination and sexual harassment.

    Kenneth L. Lichstein is Professor of Psychology at the University of Memphis. He earned his doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the University of Tennessee in 1976. Most of his career has been devoted to investigating methodological and clinical aspects of behavioral medicine, with an emphasis on sleep disorders. Professor Lichstein has published more than 80 journal articles and book chapters, as well as two books. He is the founding editor of Behavioral Sleep Medicine.

    Brian P. Marx received his PhD in 1996 from the University of Mississippi and is currently an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Temple University. His current research interests are in risk factors for and responses to sexual victimization and emotion and psychopathology. His research has been published in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Experimental and Clinical Psycho-pharmacology, and Journal of Traumatic Stress.

    Christina S. McCrae is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Florida. She is a clinical geropsychologist who earned her doctoral degree from Washington University in St. Louis in 1999. Her research focuses on the behavioral treatment of sleep problems in the elderly. She is currently investigating home-administered treatment using peer counselors, telephone, and Web-based technology to treat insomnia in the caregivers of dementia patients.

    Tracy McDonald is a doctoral student at Pacific University, School of Professional Psychology, in Forest Grove, Oregon. Her research interests include anxiety disorders, state of change, outcomes, CBT, and depression. Her clinical interests include Dialectical Behavior Therapy and working with multidiagnositic, difficult-to-treat clients.

    John L. McNulty, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Tulsa. He has authored several publications on personality assessment and individual differences in personality. Although much of Dr. McNulty's work focuses on clinical populations, he is also conducting research on the role of personality in the workplace and career success.

    Kim T. Mueser, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist and a professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Community and Family Medicine at Dartmouth Medical School in Hanover, New Hampshire. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1984 and was on the faculty of the Psychiatry Department at the Medical College of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia until 1994, when he moved to Dartmouth Medical School. Dr. Mueser's clinical and research interests include the psychosocial treatment of severe mental illnesses, dual diagnosis, and posttraumatic stress disorder. He has published extensively and given numerous lectures and workshops on psychiatric rehabilitation. He is the co-author of several books, including Social Skills Training for Psychiatric Patients (1989), Coping With Schizophrenia: A Guide for Families (1994), Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia: A Step-by-Step Guide (1997), and Behavioral Family Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders (2nd ed., 1999).

    Brian P. O'Connor received his PhD from the University of Victoria, Canada, in 1987. His interests are in normal and abnormal personality, interpersonal theory, and research methods. He sometimes suffers from the delusion that he is a hockey player.

    Michael P. O'Driscoll is Professor of Psychology at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, where he teaches courses in organizational psychology. He has a PhD in psychology from Flinders University of South Australia. His primary research interests are in the fields of job-related stress and coping, and the interface between job experiences and people's lives off the job (especially family commitments and responsibilities), including conflict between job and family commitments. More generally, he is interested in work attitudes and behaviors, and the relationship between work and health. He has published empirical and conceptual articles on these and other topics in organizational and social psychology. He has served as an editorial consultant for several academic journals and is currently the editor of the New Zealand Journal of Psychology.

    Walter Penk, PhD, ABPP, is the Chief of the Psychology/Vocational Rehabilitation Services (116B) at the Edith Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts. He is Associate Director of the New England Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center. He serves on the adjunct faculties of Boston University School of Medicine (Clinical Associate Professor in Psychiatry) and Harvard Medical School (Lecturer in Psychiatry at Cambridge Hospital). He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study and he co-chairs the VA's Psychosocial Rehabilitation committee regarding Best Practices in managing persons with psychoses as well as substance abuse, major depression disorders, and PTSD. His clinical and research interests focus on integrating mental health services in the workplace, pursued through funding clinical research centering on PTSD studies for risk management of violence encountered in employment.

    Tahira M. Probst is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Washington State University Vancouver. She received her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology in 1998 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests include outcomes of workplace diversity, the relationship between employee job insecurity and workplace safety, and the cross-cultural effectiveness of human resource practices. Her research has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

    Paul M. Roman is Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology and has been Director of the Center for Research on Behavioral Health and Human Services Delivery, Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, since 1986. His research is focused on the sociological aspects of alcohol problems, with particular attention to the organization of treatment systems and to the workplace and the design of intervention efforts to deal with employees with substance abuse problems. His current research also focuses on the patterns of organizational structure associated with organizational innovation and change among substance abuse treatment providers. Other recent research has centered on referral patterns associated with different types of employee problems referred to employee assistance programs, national patterns of drinking and drug-related behaviors and attitudes among employed people, and the structural and process characteristics of EAPs.

    Deborah A. Roth is Assistant Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry at the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her PhD in Personality/Abnormal Psychology from the University of Toronto in 1999 and completed a postdoctoral fellowship with Richard G. Heimberg, PhD, at Temple University. Dr. Roth's research interest focuses on the broad topic of interpersonal relationships in the anxiety disorders. She is interested in interpersonal factors that might contribute to the development of anxiety disorders, as well as the impairments in interpersonal functioning that are seen in people with these disorders. Dr. Roth is also interested in psychotherapy process and outcome and in training issues.

    Russell K. Schutt, PhD (University of Illinois at Chicago), is Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston. He also has an adjunct appointment at the Harvard Medical School (Lecturer in Sociology in the Department of Psychiatry at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center), where he was a co-investigator on the Boston McKinney Project, a randomized trial of group and independent living for homeless mentally ill persons. His primary research interests and publications concern homelessness, mental health, organizational process, and legal practices, with a particular focus on the impact of the organization of services on satisfaction, cognitive functioning, housing stability, and other outcomes. He has authored, co-authored, and co-edited books on research methods, sociology of organizations, and homelessness and has produced training programs on question design, research methods, and services for homeless people.

    Erin L. Scott is currently a doctoral student in the clinical psychology program at Temple University. Her interests include the role of panic attacks in anxiety disorders and the overlap between panic disorder and hypochondriasis.

    Carlla S. Smith obtained her PhD in industrial-organizational psychology from Rice University and is currently Professor of Psychology at Bowling Green State University. Her research interests include occupational health and safety, the effects of shiftwork and alternative work schedules on worker health and well-being, and stress measurement. She coauthored (with Robert Dipboye and William Howell) a textbook on industrial-organizational psychology and a book on work stress (with Lorne Sulsky). She has presented and published research internationally and has consulted widely with organizations on work stress and shiftwork.

    Lorne M. Sulsky received his PhD in industrial/organizational psychology in 1988 from Bowling Green State University. Since 1992, he has served as a faculty member at the University of Calgary. He has coauthored (with Carlla Smith) a book on the topic of work stress, and he has published and presented research in the areas of work stress and performance measurement. He frequently engages in applied projects, assisting organizations with stress management and performance improvement.

    Valerie J. Sutherland, PhD, is a Chartered Occupational Psychologist and an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society now working as an independent consultant and lecturer in occupational psychology. Prior to this, she worked as a senior research fellow and lecturer in organizational psychology at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in the Manchester School of Management. Her research interests are in the fields of occupational stress, safety and quality improvement in the workplace, and management development. Recent activities include a stress audit for teachers, stress management workshops for senior managers in international business based in Germany and the United Kingdom, and safety improvement projects in the paper industry. Her recent publications include books, book chapters, and articles on the topic of stress and safety in the workplace.

    Daniel J. Svyantek, PhD, received his degree in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Houston in 1987. He is currently a faculty member in the Psychology Department of the University of Akron. He has consulted with several organizations on projects in the areas of problem solving, compensation systems, and implementing work teams and other organizational culture change projects. He is particularly interested in the development of new evaluation methods for organizational interventions and how the practical value of research is defined within organizations to create contextually specific definitions of intervention success.

    Lois E. Tetrick is Professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the University of Houston. She received her doctorate from Georgia Institute of Technology. She has served on the editorial boards of several journals and is currently an associate editor of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. Her research interests include occupational health and safety, organizational learning, the psychology of the employment relationship, and psychological contracts.

    Michael E. Thase, MD, is Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, and an active clinical investigator whose research focuses on the assessment and treatment of mood disorders, including the correlates of differential response to various treatments for depression. A 1979 graduate of the Ohio State University College of Medicine, Dr. Thase has directed the Depression Treatment and Research Program at the University of Pittsburgh since its inception in 1987 and is now the Chief of Adult Academic Psychiatry. A Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, he has authored or coauthored more than 330 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as five books.

    Leah P. Toney is a doctoral student in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Houston. She received a master's degree in clinical psychology from Louisiana State University. Her research interests include employee health, work/life balance, and organizational change management.

    Paula Truax (PhD, University of Washington, 1995) is Assistant Professor, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon. She completed her internship and postdoctoral training at Wilford Hall Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas. She has authored and coauthored a number of scientific papers and book chapters on depression, effectiveness research, and behavioral case conceptualization. Her current research interests include effectiveness outcome research, clinical significance testing, depression, and anxiety disorder treatments.

    Krista L. Uggerslev completed her MSc degree in industrial-organizational psychology at the University of Calgary in 2000. She has published and presented research in the area of performance appraisal and personnel selection. She has also been involved in a variety of applied consulting projects. Currently, she is working on her doctoral degree in industrial-organizational psychology.

    Melanie M. VanDyke, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology Training Program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. She is currently working as a psychology intern at the Missouri Health Sciences Consortium, completing rotations at the Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital and Mid-Missouri Mental Health Center. Her current research and clinical interests include cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders, treatment process and outcome research, and the use of technology in providing clinical services.

    Edward E. Wagner, a Professor Emeritus of the University of Akron, possesses ABPPs in both clinical and counseling psychology and is a Fellow of Division 12 (Clinical) of APA. He has published extensively in the field of assessment and psychodiagnostics and is the author of the Hand Test and The Logical Rorschach.

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