The past three decades have witnessed a major increase in the number of women holding managerial positions. For example, in the United States, the proportion of women managers increased from 16% in 1970 to 44% in 1998 (see Chapter 17 by Powell in this book). Despite these changes, gender structuring of organizations persists (Bartol, 1978; Bartol & Martin, 1986; Jacobs, 1992; Perry, Davis-Blake, & Kulik, 1994; Stroh, Brett, & Reilly, 1992). Women are still greatly underrepresented in the higher levels of management (Powell, Chapter 17, this volume; Ragins & Sundstrom, 1989). Heilman (1995) argues that one cannot point to the pipeline as the problem, because research indicates that women who moved into management in the ...
Gender Influences on Performance Evaluations
Gender influences on performance evaluations