The Handbook of Gender and Work provides a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the literature and knowledge about gender and work. It equips the reader with a solid understanding of where we stand on gender and work issues and what the next directions for research and assessment will be. Under the skilled leadership of editor Gary N. Powell, an outstanding group of multidisciplinary and international researchers and scholars deliver their summary and analysis of current research and their views on how gender and work intersect along a variety of societal, economic, interpersonal, and organizational paradigms.

The Gender Gap in Earnings: Trends, Explanations, and Prospects

The Gender Gap in Earnings: Trends, Explanations, and Prospects

The gender gap in earnings: Trends, explanations, and prospects
Patricia A.Roos and Mary LizabethGatta

It is a social truism that women earn less than men. This gender gap in earnings existed in 1955, when the United States first began to track systematically the female to male earnings ratio, and remains as we near the century's end.1 This “cost of being female” (Reskin & Padavic, 1994, p. 101) persists regardless of how you define earnings (e.g., annual vs. weekly, mean vs. median), in all race/ethnic groups, across educational categories, over the life cycle, within detailed occupational categories, and across cultures.2

Despite its ubiquity, the gender earnings ratio—as a measure of the gender gap—has varied over time. Published data show two ...

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