This ambitious and long-awaited volume brings together foremost nursing scholars and educators to review and critique the state of nursing research across topics most relevant to current practice. Comprehensive in scope, cogent and truly thought provoking, a book such as the Handbook for Clinical Nursing Research is a must-have shelf reference for every nurse carrying out research or aspiring to conduct research and for those who teach them.
Chapter 20: Managing Dyspnea
Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of difficult, uncomfortable breathing and includes both the perception of labored breathing by the patient and the reaction to that sensation, rated solely by the patient (Comroe, 1965). Dyspnea is considered to be synonymous with the terms “shortness of breath” or “breathlessness” (Schwartzstein & Cristiano, 1996). Since 1965, when this early definition of dyspnea was proposed, there have been various new definitions suggested that include “increased respiratory effort needed to breathe,” “uncomfortable and unpleasant feeling of inability to breathe,” and “conscious awareness of increased commands to the inspiratory muscles.” Most authors acknowledge that dyspnea includes an element of “distress” ...