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Innovation is generally defined as the creation of a new way of doing something, whether it is concrete (e.g., the development of a new product) or abstract (development of a new philosophy or theoretical approach to a problem). Innovation plays a key role in the development of sustainable methods of production and of sustainable methods of living because in both cases it may be necessary to create alternatives to conventional ways of doing things that were developed before environmental consideration was central to most people's framework for making decisions.

Because innovation plays a central role in business success as well as in scientific progress, considerable research has focused on specifying the working conditions that are likely to produce useful innovations. In general, scholars have noted ...

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