Ecological modernization (EM) is the realization that environmental problems are not apocalyptic in nature, but a challenge for social, technical, and economic reform that involves the transformation of core institutions of modernity, especially science and technology, production and consumption, politics and governance, and the market on local, national, and global scales. Thus, it is simultaneously an analytical approach, a policy strategy, and an academic environmental discourse. From a management perspective, ecological modernization can be defined as the movement of an organization or industry toward less environmentally destructive activities. Originating in Europe, ecological modernization makes the environment an actor in modernization theory and practice and ecological considerations as important as economic considerations in forging policy. In this approach, clean technology, including green technology, and innovation are ...

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