Solar energy is harnessed in the form of heat energy and is used to produce hot water. The practice of using the sun for heating water for domestic use was attempted informally as far back as the 19th century, and the first patented solar hot water system was sold commercially in 1891, in Baltimore, Maryland. Invented by Clarence Kemp, the system was called the “Climax,” and was popular in California and other states in the United States. The incentive for householders to invest in this heating system was the comparatively high cost of using conventional fuels for heating and the inconvenience of having to use fires and stoves to have hot water. Solar thermal system designs were experimented with in the following years, and in ...

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