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Environmental policies are deliberate actions concerned with the prevention or reduction of harmful effects of human activities on our ecosystems. They can be formulated and implemented by public and private organizations.

Environmental policies are needed because environmental values are usually not considered in organizational decision making. There are two main reasons for this omission. First, environmental effects are external: the polluter does not bear the consequences of its actions; the negative effects occur elsewhere or in the future. Second, natural resources are underpriced, assuming infinite availability. Together, this results in a tragedy of the commons. The pool of natural resources can be considered as a commons that everyone can use to their own benefit. From an individual point of view, it is rational to use a ...

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