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The concept of social ecology was developed by the radical writer and social philosopher Murray Bookchin (1921–2006) as a critique of contemporary socioeconomic and political practices. Social ecology provides a sustainable, environmentally minded, and ethical framework for social planning. The theory of social ecology highlights the need for radical new perspectives on social and environmental issues, which incorporate ecologically sound, direct democratic, and confederal political structures. From an ideological perspective, social ecology includes an understanding of an ethical approach to political economy that aims for diversity, post-scarcity, and nonhierarchical social relations, alongside coexistence between humans and other species.

Social ecology extends the belief that humanity can take the lead in planning a sustainable model for the planet, with all species and societies free from the human ...

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