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Lewis Mumford (1895–1990) has provided wide-ranging interpretations on human conditions of life, and their particular natural and social environments, throughout his historical, philosophical, and urban works. Commonly recognized for his insights on cities and techniques, he should also be acknowledged for his contributions to green thought, when considering his attention to ecological depletion, urban renewal, organic outlooks, industrial degradation, and mechanization of life. As he recognized natural environments as prime factors in the development of human cultures, he was an advocate for a balance between resource use, technological advancements, and moral and political values of well-being.

Mumford was deeply influenced by Scottish biologist and urban planner Patrick Geddes and his ecological understanding of cities that encompassed the dynamics between biological and social conditions. In a series ...

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