Germany is at the center of Europe and is the historic cradle of the Lutheran Reformation. It was also on several occasions in the 16th and 17th centuries the seat of fratricidal religious wars between Catholics and Protestants (German Peasants' War, Schmalkaldic War, Thirty-Years' War), wars that sometimes had Pan-European dimensions. These struggles were resolved through attempts to create peaceful coexistence between Catholics and Lutherans, first through the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 and later by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. In the later evolution of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), these arrangements led to a strengthening of state power, which guaranteed civil peace in the framework of territorial states. In a sense, the prince of the state became the high priest, who had ...

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