Substance abuse among young children and adolescents has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Beginning in the 1960s, the use of illicit drugs and alcohol significantly increased among adolescents. From a public health perspective, the rise and incidence of substance abuse (e.g., amphetamines, methamphetamines, hallucinogens, barbiturate sedatives, cocaine, opioids, ecstasy, heroin, crystal methamphetamine, cannabis, inhalants, and excessive use of over-the-counter and prescription drugs), cigarette smoking, and alcohol use among teens has been the focus of considerable international attention. Such behaviors often begin during adolescent and young adulthood. Beginning in 1975, the use of a variety of substances among adolescents has been systematically tracked. Both the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institutes of Health has tracked this behavior through the Monitoring ...

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