Much ongoing controversy and debate exist about traditional intelligence tests and their validity and usefulness for making decisions in all educational settings (including gifted education, special education, higher education) and other settings (career, employment). Discussions of perhaps the most controversial topics revolve around the appropriateness of using tests standardized primarily on White and middle-class populations with culturally and linguistically diverse groups (Black, Hispanic, American Indian) and low socioeconomic status groups. Traditional intelligence/ability/cognitive tests have been charged with containing bias and being unfair; subsequently, they are thought to effectively limit the educational and vocational opportunities of diverse groups, especially African Americans. A central objection is that traditional intelligence tests have a high linguistic demand and high cultural demand, which serve to lower the test scores of ...

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