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Rift Valley

The rift valley, also known as the Great Rift Valley, extends over 7,000 kilometers from Syria through the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the African continent to Mozambique. Its width varies from 30–100 kilometers and depth from several hundred to several thousand meters (for example, Mount Kenya peaks at 5,200 meters, and the Danakil Depression is 155 meters below sea level). Formation of the Great Rift Valley along a tectonic rift began in the Eocene and became more active in the Mesozoic period, and included intensive volcanic activity and magma eruptions that formed large basaltic lava fields. Continuous uprising of the highlands and drifting apart of the African, Somali, and Arabic plates resulted in the breaking and sinking of the highlands, creating ...

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