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The development of methods that allow integrated analysis is central to current research on nature-society relations. Integrated methods combine qualitative and quantitative approaches aimed at understanding human-environment relations. Great challenges are involved in developing such integration due to the strong epistemological barriers that exist between the humanities, social, and natural sciences. Methods are framed by philosophical traditions that reflect key assumptions such as views of the social and natural world (constructivism or realism), positions regarding what is important to know (contextuality or generalizations) and perspectives regarding the nature of knowledge (subjectivity or objectivity).

The common assumption is that natural sciences and certain social sciences such as economics are grounded in logic and that they employ verification and replication, using experimental and quantitative methodologies, whereas most of ...

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